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John L. Semmlow, Weihong Yuan; Adaptive Modification of Disparity Vergence Components: An Independent Component Analysis Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(7):2189-2195. doi: https://doi.org/.
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purpose. Although a disparity vergence stimulus produces a smooth exponential-like response, considerable experimental evidence indicates that it is the product of at least two motor components: a pulselike transient component and a steplike sustained component. Recently, a new application of independent component analysis (ICA) has been used to decompose the vergence step response into these underlying components. Other recent experiments have shown that the vergence system is capable of rapidly modifying its dynamic characteristics (short-term adaptation) when exposed to specially designed “adapting” stimuli. Adapted responses were characterized by faster dynamics, often featuring large overshoots. In this study, ICA was used to examine changes in the underlying components produced by dynamic adaptation.
methods. Disparity vergence eye movements in response to identical step stimuli were obtained from four subjects both in normal (baseline) conditions and after modification by adaptive training stimuli. ICA-based component decomposition was applied to vergence step-response data sets in both normal and adapted conditions to estimate, and compare activation patterns of the two underlying components.
results. An eigenvector analysis indicated that both normal and adapted vergence responses contained two major components. ICA analysis showed that the enhanced dynamics seen in adapted responses was due to an increase in pulse component amplitude. In addition, the step component of adapted responses often showed double-step behavior in the later portion of the response. Finally, the magnitude of adaptation appeared to be related to the unadapted response dynamics.
conclusions. The adaptive process does not evoke additional components, but modifies the two components that are present under normal conditions. Double steps seen in the step component were attributed to an interaction between pulse and step neural mechanisms. The generation of an enhanced pulse component interfered with the production of the step component. Under this scenario, the reduced initial-step component was then compensated by the generation of a second-step component, probably mediated by an internal feedback mechanism.
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