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Jie Li, James V. Jester, H. Dwight Cavanagh, Truman D. Black, W. Matthew Petroll; On-Line 3-Dimensional Confocal Imaging In Vivo. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(10):2945-2953.
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purpose. In vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF) can provide a 3-D
stack of high-resolution corneal images and allows objective
measurements of corneal sublayer thickness and backscattering. However,
current systems require time-consuming off-line image processing and
analysis on multiple software platforms. Furthermore, there is a trade
off between the CMTF speed and measurement precision. The purpose of
this study was to develop a novel on-line system for in vivo corneal
imaging and analysis that overcomes these limitations.
methods. A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) was used for corneal
imaging. The TSCM video camera was interfaced directly to a PC image
acquisition board to implement real-time digitization. Software was
developed to allow in vivo 2-D imaging, CMTF image acquisition,
interactive 3-D reconstruction, and analysis of CMTF data to be
performed on line in a single user-friendly environment. A procedure
was also incorporated to separate the odd/even video fields, thereby
doubling the CMTF sampling rate and theoretically improving the
precision of CMTF thickness measurements by a factor of two.
results. In vivo corneal examinations of a normal human and a photorefractive
keratectomy patient are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of
the new system. Improvements in the convenience, speed, and
functionality of in vivo CMTF image acquisition, display, and analysis
conclusions. This is the first full-featured software package designed for in vivo
TSCM imaging of the cornea, which performs both 2-D and 3-D image
acquisition, display, and processing as well as CMTF analysis. The use
of a PC platform and incorporation of easy to use, on line, and
interactive features should help to improve the clinical utility of
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