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David Troilo, Debora L. Nickla, Christine F. Wildsoet; Form Deprivation Myopia in Mature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(8):2043-2049.
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purpose. Experimental manipulations of visual experience are known to affect the
growth of the eye and the development of refractive state in a variety
of species including human and nonhuman primates. For example, it is
well established that visual form deprivation causes elongation of the
eye and myopia. The effects of such manipulations have generally been
examined in neonatal or juvenile animals. Whether adolescent
common marmosets (a new world primate) are susceptible to form
deprivation myopia was studied.
methods. Five adolescent marmosets were used in this study. Monocular form
deprivation was induced by lid closure for 12 to 20 weeks, starting
between 299 and 315 days of age. The effects of deprivation were
assessed with keratometry, A-scan ultrasonography, and cycloplegic
refractions. Both eyes (treated and fellow control) were measured
before lid-closure, at the end of the deprivation period, and several
times over the following 8 to 12 weeks.
results. Adolescent marmosets are susceptible to visual form deprivation myopia.
The experimental eyes showed significant axial elongation and myopia
relative to the fellow control eyes. These changes were smaller,
however, than those observed in younger eyes deprived for comparable
periods. Like juvenile animals, the adolescent marmosets did not show
recovery from myopia over the period monitored.
conclusions. The period for susceptibility to form deprivation myopia in the
marmoset monkey extends beyond the early developmental period when
ocular growth is rapid and emmetropization normally takes place. Visual
form deprivation in adolescent marmosets with adult-sized eyes results
in increased ocular growth and myopia. These data suggest that visual
factors may influence the growth and refractive development of the
human eye after puberty and may be involved in late-onset
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