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Seang-Mei Saw, Wei-Han Chua, Ching-Ye Hong, Hui-Min Wu, Kee-Seng Chia, Richard A. Stone, Donald Tan; Height and Its Relationship to Refraction and Biometry Parameters in Singapore Chinese Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(5):1408-1413.
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purpose. To examine the association between the anthropometric measurements of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and refraction and other ocular parameters in Singapore Chinese children.
methods. In a cross-sectional study of 1449 Chinese schoolchildren, aged 7 to 9 years, from three Singapore schools, height and weight were measured according to standard protocol, and BMI was calculated. Refractive error and corneal curvature measures were determined by autorefraction in eyes under cycloplegia. Axial length, vitreous chamber depth, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth were measured using A-scan biometry ultrasonography.
results. In comparison with the children with height in the first quartile for a given age and gender, the eyeball length in children in the fourth quartile was 0.46 mm longer, the vitreous chamber depth 0.46 mm deeper, the corneal radius of curvature 0.10 mm greater (i.e., flatter), refraction more negative by 0.47 D (−0.76 D versus −0.29 D), and axial length-to-corneal curvature radius (AL-CR) ratio higher, after analyses controlling for age, gender, parental myopia, reading, school, and weight. The associations of height with refractive error and AL-CR ratio were significant in girls but not in boys. Heavier and more obese children had refractions that were more hyperopic (P = 0.01, P = 0.08), after analyses controlling for age, gender, parental myopia, reading, and school (height was also controlled for if weight was evaluated). This association was present in boys but not in girls.
conclusions. Controlling for age, gender, parental myopia, reading, school, and weight showed that taller Singapore Chinese children had eyes with longer axial lengths, deeper vitreous chambers, flatter corneas, and refractions that tended toward myopia. In multivariate analysis, eyes in children who were heavier or who had a higher BMI tended to have refractions that were more hyperopic, and eyes in heavier children had shorter vitreous chambers. Differences between the present results and a recent report in Singapore adults suggest either a cohort effect or a potential influence of systemic endocrine or metabolic factors during childhood on refractive development.
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