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Jean-Antoine C. Pournaras, Ioannis K. Petropoulos, Jean-Luc Munoz, Constantin J. Pournaras; Experimental Retinal Vein Occlusion: Effect of Acetazolamide and Carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) on Preretinal PO2. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(10):3669-3677. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-0086.
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purpose. To evaluate the variations of preretinal oxygen partial pressure (Po 2) in normal and in ischemic postexperimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) areas, during normoxia, hyperoxia (100% O2), and carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) breathing before and after intravenous injection of acetazolamide.
methods. Preretinal Po 2 measurements were obtained in intervascular retinal areas, distant from the retinal vessels of 13 anesthetized mini-pigs with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10 μm tip diameter) introduced through the vitreous cavity by a micromanipulator. The microelectrode tip was placed <50 μm from the vitreoretinal interface in the preretinal vitreous. Po 2 was measured continuously for 10 minutes under systemic normoxia, hyperoxia, and carbogen breathing. A BRVO was induced with an argon green laser, and oxygen measurements were repeated under normoxia, hyperoxia, and carbogen breathing, before and after intravenous injection of acetazolamide (500 mg bolus).
results. In hyperoxia, a moderate nonsignificant preretinal Po 2 increase in both normal (ΔPo 2 = 2.20 ± 4.16 mm Hg; n = 25) and ischemic retinas (ΔPo 2 = 4.30 ± 3.57 mm Hg; n = 16) was measured in spite of a substantial increase in systemic Pao 2. Carbogen breathing induced a significant increase in systemic Paco 2 and a higher systemic Pao 2 than hyperoxia. Furthermore, it significantly increased the preretinal Po 2 in normal areas (ΔPo 2 = 19.37 ± 16.41 mm Hg; n = 26), and in ischemic areas (ΔPo 2 = 14.94 ± 8.53 mm Hg; n = 14). Intravenous acetazolamide did not affect the preretinal Po 2. Acetazolamide induced an increase of the preretinal Po 2 to a greater extent when it was associated with carbogen breathing (ΔPo 2 = 15.15 ± 9.15 mm Hg; n = 7) than when it was combined with hyperoxia (ΔPo 2 = 6.96 ± 4.49 mm Hg; n = 7).
conclusions. Carbogen breathing significantly increased preretinal Po 2 in normal and in ischemic postexperimental BRVO areas of mini-pigs. The concomitant use of acetazolamide injection and carbogen breathing or hyperoxia could restore an appropriate oxygenation of BRVO areas.
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