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Claudia S. Alge, Siegfried G. Priglinger, Daniel Kook, Holger Schmid, Christos Haritoglou, Ulrich Welge-Lussen, Anselm Kampik; Galectin-1 Influences Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(1):415-426. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0308.
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purpose. To determine whether the β-galactoside-binding matricellular protein Gal-1 is expressed in human specimens of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and to evaluate its influence on RPE migration.
methods. RT-PCR was used to detect Gal-1-specific transcripts in PVR membranes, and the expression pattern of Gal-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry. Expression of Gal-1 in native, low- and high-density cultured RPE cells was determined by Western blot analysis. Cultured human RPE cells were treated with bFGF, TGF-β2, PDGF-BB, or HGF. The dose-response of Gal-1 mRNA expression was measured by by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Induction of Gal-1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. To study the effect of Gal-1 on RPE migration in vitro, Gal-1 expression was silenced by RNA interference. β-Lactose was used to saturate extracellular galectins. RPE cell migration was assessed by a modified Boyden chamber assay, with HGF as the chemoattractant.
results. Gal-1 mRNA expression was present in human specimens of PVR membranes, and staining for Gal-1 was distributed throughout the extracellular matrix (ECM) of PVR membranes. Colocalization was found with laminin and fibronectin and cells of epithelial origin. Western blot analysis revealed greater baseline expression levels in low-density cultured RPE cells than in native and high-density cultured RPE cells. Treatment with HGF caused a dose-dependent increase in Gal-1 expression. Low expression levels of Gal-1 correlated with a reduction of RPE migration to 14% of control. β-Lactose inhibited HGF-induced RPE cell migration to 23% of control.
conclusions. Gal-1 is present in the extracellular matrix of PVR membranes and may be derived from dedifferentiated RPE cells. The expression level of Gal-1 appears to be related to a migratory RPE phenotype and stimulation by HGF, both conditions implicated in the pathogenesis of early PVR. Furthermore, HGF-induced RPE migration may be dependent, at least in part, on Gal-1- and β-galactoside-dependent mechanisms.
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