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Allen C. Clermont, Mark Cahill, Haytham Salti, Susan L. Rook, Christian Rask-Madsen, Lucy Goddard, Jun S. Wong, Dahlia Bursell, Sven E. Bursell, Lloyd Paul Aiello; Hepatocyte Growth Factor Induces Retinal Vascular Permeability via MAP-Kinase and PI-3 Kinase without Altering Retinal Hemodynamics. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(6):2701-2708. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0071.
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purpose. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of retinal vascular permeability (RVP), there may be additional humoral contributors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces endothelial cell separation, regulates expression of cell adhesion molecules and is increased in the vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of HGF on RVP and retinal hemodynamics and delineate the signaling pathways.
methods. RVP was assessed by vitreous fluorescein fluorophotometry in rats. Time course and dose-response were determined after intravitreal HGF injection. MAP kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) involvement were examined by using selective inhibitors. Retinal blood flow (RBF) and mean circulation time (MCT) were evaluated by video fluorescein angiography.
results. HGF increased RVP in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HGF-induced RVP was evident 5 minutes after injection, and reached maximal levels after 25 minutes (+107% versus vehicle, P = 0.002). This effect was comparable to that of maximum VEGF stimulation (134% ± 128% at 25 ng/mL). Selective inhibitors of MAPK (PD98059) and PI-3 kinase (LY294002) suppressed HGF-induced RVP by 86% ± 44% (P = 0.015) and 97% ± 59% (P = 0.021), respectively. Non-isoform-selective inhibition of PKC did not significantly decrease HGF-induced RVP. Although VEGF increases RBF and reduces MCT, HGF did not affect either.
conclusions. HGF increases RVP in a time- and dose-dependent manner at physiologically relevant concentrations with a magnitude and profile similar to that of VEGF, without affecting retinal hemodynamics. Thus, HGF may represent another clinically significant contributor to retinal edema distinct from the actions of VEGF.
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