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Tomo Suzuki, Frank Schirra, Stephen M. Richards, Nathaniel S. Treister, Michael J. Lombardi, Patricia Rowley, Roderick V. Jensen, David A. Sullivan; Estrogen’s and Progesterone’s Impact on Gene Expression in the Mouse Lacrimal Gland. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(1):158-168. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1003.
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purpose. The hypothesis tested in the study was that the effect of estrogen and progesterone on the lacrimal gland is mediated through specific receptors and that hormonal effects involve the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis.
methods. Lacrimal glands were collected from young adult, ovariectomized mice, that were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol plus progesterone or vehicle for 2 weeks. Glands were pooled according to treatment, processed for the isolation of RNA, and evaluated for differentially expressed mRNAs by using gene microarrays. Bioarray data were analyzed with sophisticated bioinformatics and statistical programs. The expression of selected genes was verified by using gene chips and quantitative real-time PCR methods.
results. The results demonstrate that 17β-estradiol, progesterone, or both hormones together significantly influences the expression of hundreds of genes in the mouse lacrimal gland. Sex steroid treatment led to numerous alterations in gene activities related to transcriptional control, cell growth and/or maintenance, cell communication, signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, immune expression, and the binding and metabolism of nucleic acids and proteins. A number of the 17β-estradiol, progesterone or 17β-estradiol plus progesterone effects on gene expression were similar, but most were unique to each treatment. Of particular interest was the finding that these hormones seem to contribute little to the known sex-related differences in gene expression of the lacrimal gland.
conclusions. These results support the hypothesis that estrogen’s and progesterone’s action on the lacrimal gland involves the regulation of numerous genes. However, these hormone effects do not appear to represent a major factor underlying the sexual dimorphism of gene expression in lacrimal tissue.
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