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Koichi Inomata, Kazushige Tsunoda, Gen Hanazono, Yoko Kazato, Kei Shinoda, Mitsuko Yuzawa, Manabu Tanifuji, Yozo Miyake; Distribution of Retinal Responses Evoked by Transscleral Electrical Stimulation Detected by Intrinsic Signal Imaging in Macaque Monkeys. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(5):2193-2200. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0727.
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purpose. The distribution of the electrical current over the retina when electrical pulses are delivered transsclerally has not been clearly determined objectively and quantitatively in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of electrically evoked neural activity in the monkey retina by using intrinsic signal imaging.
methods. The intrinsic signals of monkey retinas were recorded as changes in the reflectance of infrared light from the retina after transscleral electrical stimulation by DTL electrodes. The effects of changing the stimulus parameters (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) of the electrical current, were investigated.
results. Electrical stimulation evoked a uniform change in the reflectivity across the posterior pole of the retina; that is, the intrinsic signals changed uniformly. A peak of the intrinsic signal was not observed at the fovea. The threshold of the intrinsic signal was not significantly different for the macula, perimacula, and optic disc, and the threshold did not differ under dark- and light-adapted conditions. The strength of the signals increased with longer stimulus durations, and the maximum signals were obtained when the stimulus frequency was between 15 and 20 Hz.
conclusions. Intrinsic signals of the monkey retina evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation are elicited uniformly across the posterior pole of the fundus and most likely arise from activation of the inner or middle layers of the retina. These functional measurements could serve as a diagnostic tool for mapping the inner retinal activity, by which the site of a lesion can be noninvasively imaged.
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