February 2007
Volume 48, Issue 2
Free
Retinal Cell Biology  |   February 2007
Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina in Early Postnatal Mouse Development
Author Affiliations
  • Andrea Gehrig
    From the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; the
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;
  • Thomas Langmann
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;
  • Franziska Horling
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;
  • Andreas Janssen
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;
  • Michael Bonin
    Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
  • Michael Walter
    Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
  • Sven Poths
    Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
  • Bernhard H. F. Weber
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science February 2007, Vol.48, 891-900. doi:10.1167/iovs.06-0641
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      Andrea Gehrig, Thomas Langmann, Franziska Horling, Andreas Janssen, Michael Bonin, Michael Walter, Sven Poths, Bernhard H. F. Weber; Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina in Early Postnatal Mouse Development. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(2):891-900. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0641.

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      © 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

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Abstract

purpose. The Rs1h knockout mouse displays retinal features typical for X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS). Consequently, this mouse line represents an excellent model to study early molecular events in RS.

methods. Whole genome expression profiling using DNA-microarrays was performed on total RNA extracts from retinoschisin-deficient and wild-type murine retinas from postnatal days 7, 9, 11, and 14. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of additional time points facilitated the refinement of the temporal expression profile of differentially regulated transcripts. Differential protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis.

results. Based on biostatistic and knowledge-based DNA-microarray analyses we have identified differentially regulated retinal genes in early postnatal stages of the Rs1h-deficient mouse defining key molecular pathways including adhesion, cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking, and immune response. A significant upregulation of Egr1 at P11 and several microglia/glia-related transcripts starting at P11 with a peak at P14 were identified in the diseased retina. The results provided evidence that macrophage/microglia activation precedes apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Finally, the role of Egr1 in the pathogenesis of Rs1h-deficiency was investigated, and the results indicated that activation of the MAPK Erk1/2 pathway occurs as early as P7. Analyses of Rs1h /Y /Egr1 −/− double-knockout mice suggest that Egr1 upregulation is not a prerequisite for macrophage/microglia activation or apoptosis.

conclusions. The findings imply that microglia/glia activation may be triggering events in the photoreceptor degeneration of retinoschisin-deficient mice. Furthermore, the data point to a role of Erk1/2-Egr1 pathway activation in RS pathogenesis.

Retinoschisis (RS) is a recessively inherited retinal dystrophy with macular disease often resulting in early-onset vision loss. A hallmark of the disease is a limited splitting of the central retina typically presenting as a spoke-wheel pattern. 1 Peripheral schisis is seen in approximately 50% of affected males and is usually located in the inferior temporal quadrant. RS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the RS1 gene on Xp22.13. 2 It encodes a 24-kDa protein, termed retinoschisin, which is mainly secreted from photoreceptors as a homo-oligomeric complex. 3 4 5 6 7 Retinoschisin is almost entirely composed of a highly conserved discoidin domain frequently found in a wide range of membrane and extracellular proteins and most likely mediating cell adhesion and cellular signaling processes. 8 9  
To study retinoschisin function, we have generated a gene-targeted mouse line with a disruption of Rs1h, the murine orthologue of the human RS1 gene. 10 The knockout mouse appears to be an excellent disease model that closely resembles human disease. For example, hemizygous male mice reveal a characteristic “negative electroretinogram” and a highly disorganized retinal architecture with schisis cavities within the inner nuclear layer. This is accompanied by progressive loss of cone and rod photoreceptor cells. 10 Recently, we have shown that the photoreceptor degeneration is due to apoptosis, more specifically to the receptor mediated extrinsic pathway, with a major burst of dying cells around postnatal day 18. 11  
To elucidate the molecular events that precede photoreceptor disease in the Rs1h knockout mouse, we applied DNA-microarray-based mRNA profiling in retinal tissue of postnatal stages (P)7, 9, 11, and 14. Besides Rs1h, we identified several differentially expressed transcripts with a functional annotation to adhesion, cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking, and immune response. Most of the genes in these groups are regulated before the onset of an appreciable expression of genes involved in apoptosis. Notably, many genes are implicated in microglia/glia activity and inflammatory processes. An upregulated expression of the early growth response gene 1 (Egr1) was found relatively early in the disease process at P9. This has further prompted us to investigate the role of Egr1 in RS disease by generating Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− double-knockout mice. 
Materials and Methods
Animals
Animals were maintained in an air-conditioned environment on a 12-hour light–dark schedule at 20°C to 22°C, and had free access to food and water. The health of the animals was regularly monitored, and all procedures strictly adhered to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The Egr1 +/ mouse was purchased from Taconic (Ry, Denmark) and the Rs1h /Y mouse has been described previously. 10 These mice were on a C57BL/6 background and backcrossed for 12 generations. 
RNA Isolation
Retinal tissue was isolated from eye bulbs and purified under the microscope from contaminating vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris. Total RNA was extracted (RNeasy Mini Kit; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). 
Microarray Analysis and Statistical Data Evaluation
Generation of double-stranded cDNA, preparation and labeling of cRNA, hybridization to 430A 2.0 or 430 2.0 mouse genome arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), washing, and scanning were performed according to the protocol. Scanned images were analyzed (Microarray Suite version 5.0; Affymetrix), to generate report files for quality control. For data analysis, expression levels of single probes derived from Affymetrix CEL-files were evaluated (ChipInspector software; Genomatix GmbH, Munich, Germany). Previous annotations of the single oligonucleotide probes by Affymetrix were disregarded, together with the grouping of the probes in probe sets. The sequence of each single probe was mapped against the current genome annotation (Build 36; National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI], Bethesda, MD) and only probes with uniqueness in the genome were used for analysis. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms were accounted for. Thereafter, ratios of single probe signals were calculated and logarithmic transformation was performed. For normalization, a linear total-intensity normalization algorithm was used. Significantly regulated transcripts were discovered by a single sided permutated t-test with a false discovery rate (FDR) calculation using the significance analysis of microarray (SAM) algorithm.12Scores were calculated for each gene based on the multiple of expression level changes relative to the standard deviation of repeated measurements. To estimate FDR, nonsense genes were identified by analyzing permutations of the measurements. An FDR of 5% was chosen in the first step of our statistical analysis and lists of genes that fulfill these criteria for data sets at P7, P9, P11, and P14 are given in Supplementary Tables S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. To increase stringency, a 1.8 fold-change and a minimum signal intensity of 50 were selected as inclusion criteria (Table 1) .13Functional annotation of transcripts was performed on computer (BiblioSphere, Pathway Edition; Genomatix, Munich, Germany).14The microarray data set of this study is publicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) through accession number GSE5581. 
Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Analysis
Total RNAs from time points P5, P7, P9, P11, P13, P14, P15, P18, and P22 from Rs1h /Y mice and RNAs from time points P18 and P24 from Rs1h /Y/Egr1 +/ and Rs1h /Y/Egr1 / mice were used to generate cDNA. For each condition two animals (four eyes) were analyzed in triplicate measurements. First strand cDNA synthesis was performed (Superscript II; Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed with a thermocycler (iCycler; Bio-Rad, Munich, Germany) as described previously, 11 using primers listed in Supplementary Table S5. Input cDNA quantities were estimated by comparison to expression of five reference genes (Atp5b, Gusb, Hprt1, Rpl4, and Sdha). 15  
SDS Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blot Analysis
Retinal tissue was homogenized in buffer (PhosphoSafe; Novagen, Madison, WI). Quantitation of protein extracts was performed by a protein assay based on the Bradford method (Bio-Rad). Western blots were prepared after SDS-PAGE of 20 μg protein and labeled with phospho-ERK 1/2 pAb (dilution 1:1.000; Sigma-Aldrich, Munich, Germany), ERK 1/2 pAb (dilution 1:2.000; Sigma-Aldrich), or β-actin mAb (dilution 1:60.000; Sigma-Aldrich). After the blots were washed in PBS/Tween-20, they were labeled with goat anti-rabbit and goat anti-mouse Ig-peroxidase (dilution 1:10.000; Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA) for detection by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL). 
Immunofluorescence Labeling and TUNEL-Assay
Immunofluorescence studies of retinal cryosections and TUNEL-staining of eye bulbs from Rs1h-deficient, Egr1-deficient (Taconic) or double-knockout mice (Rs1h−/Y/Egr1+/− and Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− ) was performed exactly as described recently. 11  
Results
Microarray Analysis
To study molecular events accompanying retinoschisin deficiency, we first analyzed gene expression in retinal tissues from Rs1h-knockout and wild-type mice at P7, P9, and P11. In wild-type animals, expression of Rs1h mRNA is detectable at P5 and reaches adult levels at P11 (data not shown). Retinal cRNAs from three Rs1h /Y mice and three wild-type littermates at P7, P9, and P11 were hybridized to microarrays (Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 GeneChips; Affymetrix) detecting 14,000 annotated mouse genes. For a second round analysis of stage P14, cRNAs from six Rs1h-knockout mice and seven wild-type littermates were hybridized to microarrays (Mouse Genome 430 2.0 GeneChips; Affymetrix) covering more than 34,000 mouse genes. 
Initial evaluation of single probe expression ratios with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% based on SAM analysis indicated differential expression of 55 genes on P7, 60 genes on P9, 87 genes on P11, and 262 genes on P14 (for gene lists see Supplementary Tables S1S4). Based on own experience with previous microarray studies,13we next applied higher-stringency conditions selecting for genes with at least 1.8-fold expression changes and minimum signal intensities of 50 signal units. Thereafter, the number of significantly regulated genes was reduced to 17 for P7, 24 for P9, 27 for P11, and 41 for P14 (Table 1) . The top regulated genes apart from Rs1h were Tlr4 (4.0-fold) and Wasf3 (−2.5-fold) at P7, Ubqln2 (2.0-fold) and Ndrg3 (−4.2-fold) at P9, Crip3 (3.7-fold) and the unknown gene 4632413K17 (−3.0-fold) at P11, and Spp1 (4.3-fold) and Cryaa (−2.2-fold) at P14. 
To characterize further the observed mRNA regulations, molecular function annotation of pathways was performed. As displayed in Figure 1 , grouping of genes into pathways with at least two entries recurring in the time course (colored segments) yielded the main categories cytoskeleton, adhesion, vesicular trafficking, immune response, and apoptosis. At P7, genes involved in adhesion and vesicular trafficking were prominent, whereas at later stages immune response and microglia/glia-specific genes were mainly detected. Genes regulated at several time points include the induced immune regulatory gene Tlr4 and the downregulated vesicular trafficking gene Sh3gl2 (Table 2) . All commonly regulated transcripts were found at P11 and we therefore conclude that these molecular events represent initial as well as secondary changes related to Rs1h deficiency. The large number of upregulated genes at P14 related to immune response also indicates a significant involvement of microglia and glia cells in RS. Because transcription factors are of particular importance for regulatory responses, the upregulation of Egr1 was verified by qRT-PCR along with the immune response genes induced at P14 (Table 1and Fig. 1 ). Six transcripts which are increased at P14, namely Spp1, Emp1, S100a6, Lgals3, Cxcl12, and Vim contain verified Egr1 binding sites in their regulatory regions, suggesting that early Egr1 expression could induce transcriptional waves at later time points. 
Refined Expression Profiling by qRT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry
We next examined the upregulated transcripts at postnatal stages P7, P9, P11, P13, P15, P18, and P22 by qRT-PCR (Fig. 2) . Egr1 was significantly induced in the retinoschisin-deficient retina starting at P9 (P < 0.05), further upregulated at P11 and P13 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), unchanged at P15, and again strongly induced at P18 and P22 (Fig. 2a) . We then quantified mRNA levels of 1700063D05, a gene with an as yet unknown function (Fig. 2b) . Upregulation of 1700063D05 transcripts started in Rs1h knockout mice at P13 but showed a marked decline from P15 to P22. The expression profile 1 in Figure 2csubsumes the mRNA pattern of 10 upregulated genes identified in the DNA-microarray experiments at P14 including Spp1, Tyrobp, Clec7a, Cd68, Ccl6, Fcer1g, Lyzs, Mpeg1, Msr2, and Cd53 (Table 1 and Supplementary Table S4) comprising microglia-associated genes. There is a steady increase in gene expression starting between P11 and P13 with a maximum at P18 and a decline beyond this time point. Expression profile 2 (Fig. 2d)represents the expression pattern of five genes including S100a6, Cyp26a1, Tgm2, Tagln2, and Gfap revealing a sharp upregulation between P15 and P18 and elevated levels until P22. 
We then sought to define precisely the chronological expression of microglia-associated genes exemplified by Cd68 and Clec7a in comparison with transcripts involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Casp8 and Tnfrsf6). There was a steady increase of expression profile 1 transcripts beginning at P13 while apoptosis-related upregulation started not until P16 (Fig. 3) . These data clearly indicate that microglia-related gene expression precedes expression of apoptosis-related transcripts in the retinoschisin-deficient retina by several days. 
To correlate mRNA profiles with protein expression, we performed immunohistochemistry on Rs1h knockout and wild-type retinal sections from three developmental stages (P14, P18, and P24). Anti-F4/80 was used as a marker of microglia activation, whereas the glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) served as a stress indicator of retinal Müller glial cells. At P14, expression of Gfap (green) was similar in the retinoschisin-deficient and the wild-type retina, whereas the activation marker F4/80 (red) indicated isolated microglia in the inner nuclear layer of the Rs1h /Y retina (Fig. 4 , left). At P18 and P24 there was prominent labeling of the two marker proteins in the Rs1h-knockout tissue (Fig. 4 , middle and right) fully corroborating our qRT-PCR data (Figs. 2c 2d 3)
Analysis of the Erk1/2 Pathway in the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina
Our data demonstrate that upregulation of Egr1 at P9 may contribute to the pathogenesis of the retinoschisin-deficient retina. Egr1 expression is induced by external signals including growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, or toxins via the serine-threonine kinases Erk1 and Erk2 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. 16 17 We therefore analyzed the phosphorylation status of Erk1/2 in the Rs1h-deficient retina at stages P5, P7, P11, and P13 (Fig. 5) . Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in Erk1/2 phosphorylation (p-Erk1/2) at P7, P11, and P13 but not at P5 in retinal extracts from retinoschisin-deficient versus wild-type mice (Fig. 5)
Characterization of the Rs1h/Y/Egr1/ Double-Knockout Mouse
To investigate the role of Egr1 in RS, we generated double-knockout mice deficient for both retinoschisin and Egr1. Histologic examination of retinal sections from double knockout mice at P18 and P24 showed pathologic manifestations typical for the single Rs1h knockout. 10 Furthermore, three knockout genotypes (Rs1h +/Y/Egr / , Rs1h /Y/Egr +/ , and Rs1h /Y/Egr / ) were analyzed at P18 and P24 for mRNA expression of the upregulated marker genes 1700063D05, Cd68, and Gfap (Figs. 6a 6b 6c) . qRT-PCR demonstrates a significant increase of all three transcripts in the Rs1h-deficient retina independent of the Egr1 genotype (Egr1 +/ or Egr1 / ) similar to the data obtained for the Rs1h single knockout. This suggests that partial or full Egr1 deficiency does not prevent induction of microglia/glia activation markers in the Rs1h /Y retina. 
We finally explored possible effects of Egr1-deficiency on the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and identified that the apoptosis markers Tnfrsf6 and Casp8 are upregulated in the retinoschisin-deficient retina, independent of Egr1 expression status (Egr1 +/ or Egr1 / ; Figs. 6d 6e ). To further corroborate these findings, TUNEL assays were performed in retinal sections of the three genotypes Rs1h +/Y/Egr−/−, Rs1h /Y/Egr +/ , and Rs1h /Y/Egr / at developmental stages P18 and P24. The number of apoptotic nuclei was significantly increased in Rs1h /Y versus wild-type retinas, either on the Egr1 +/ or the Egr1 / background (Fig. 7) . This suggests no direct link between transcriptional Egr1 upregulation and apoptotic events in the retinoschisin-deficient mouse. 
Discussion
In the present study, we performed microarray analysis and qRT-PCR in the Rs1h−/Y retina compared with wild-type. At P7, where Rs1h is normally present and where early events in pathogenesis are expected, transcripts for adhesion molecules, photoreceptor-specific proteins, cytoskeleton, and neuroprotective proteins were detected. Among these, Nell2 is a neuron-specific secreted glycoprotein protecting against oxygen-glucose-deprivation- and β-amyloid-induced cell death, 18 whereas overexpression of the photoreceptor protein recoverin leads to photoreceptor degeneration. 19 The strongest upregulated gene at P7, Tlr4, is expressed in retinal pigment epithelium 20 and in activated microglia. 21 Furthermore, human TLR4 genetic variants are associated with age-related macular degeneration, 22 suggesting functional consequences of these aberrant transcript patterns. 
We have identified 10 genes gradually increasing in expression starting at P11 (profile 1), a steep upregulation of 1700063D05 at P13, and induction of five genes in profile 2 (1700063D05, Cyp26a, S100a6, Tagln2, and Gfap) between P15 and P18. Notably, P14 is a time point where first histopathological features such as cystlike structures in the inner retina, disruption of the outer plexiform layer, and disorganization and displacement of retinal cells become apparent in Rs1h−/Y animals. 10 Although 1700063D05 is of unknown function, Cyp26a1 plays a role in retinoic acid metabolism, 23 S100a6 is functionally involved in cell cycle progression, 24 25 and Tagln2 represents a marker of smooth muscle differentiation. 26 Whereas a correlation between RS and upregulation of transcripts 1700063D05, Cyp26a, S100a6, and Tagln2 may be challenging to reconcile, increased expression of the intermediate filament protein Gfap most likely represents a reactive response of Müller glia cells and astrocytes to the degenerative processes caused by the lack of retinoschisin. Accordingly, consistent upregulation of Gfap in other models of retinal injury has been reported, including glaucoma, 27 28 retinal tear injury, 29 and diabetic retinopathy. 30  
The expression data at time points P11 and P14 clearly implicate microglia-mediated processes in pathologic events of retinoschisin deficiency. Several genes are related to immune response and are expressed in microglia. Clec7a is a pattern-recognition receptor detecting β-glucans from fungi and plants, resulting in inflammation 31 32 and Fcer1g encodes the gamma chain of the IgE receptor CD23, which is important for allergic reactions. 33 Lysz is an inducible marker of phagocytosis expressed during microglia activation after neuronal injury. 34 The chemokine Ccl6 acts as mediator of astrocyte and microglia migration in vitro, 35 whereas the secreted phosphoprotein Spp1, participates in cellular attachment. 36 Egr1 induces the expression of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α or macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). 16 37 38 Egr1, together with Tyrobp, also controls terminal differentiation and activation of macrophages. 39 40 41 42  
Several of these immune-regulatory genes (e.g., Spp1, Lysz, and C1qb) and the immediate early response gene Egr1 have also been associated with retinal disease in DNA-microarray approaches similar to those used in our study, such as analyses of ischemic injury and light-induced damage to the retina. 43 44 45 Egr1, which is upregulated at P9 is involved in a large number of cellular events ranging from mitogenesis, differentiation, cell protection and survival, pro- and antiapoptotic processes to macrophage differentiation. 40 46 Although not unique to retinoschisin-deficiency, this suggests that Egr1 may act as a convergence point for multiple signaling cascades, which is also supported by our finding that the promoters of six commonly induced genes at P14 related to adhesion, immune response, and cytoskeleton contain verified Egr1-binding sites. It is therefore of great interest to identify further the events upstream and downstream of the initiation of Egr1 transcription. Toward this end, we analyzed the phosphorylation of the MAP Erk1/2 kinases and have found that this pathway was activated in the retinoschisin-deficient retina as early as P7. In mammalian cells, the MEK1/2/ERK signaling pathway plays a crucial role in immediate early gene (IEG) induction by directly activating IEG promoter-bound transcription factors such as Egr1. 47 Further studies are needed to determine Egr1-expressing cell types in the diseased retina and to analyze the gene activation cascade upstream of Egr1. So far, the mechanism coupling the extracellular membrane–associated retinoschisin to intracellular signaling remains elusive, but it may be relayed via an as yet unknown membrane receptor protein. 
We were also interested in exploring downstream consequences of Egr1 activation. However, double-knockout mice deficient of both Rs1h and Egr1 were indistinguishable from Rs1h single-knockout mice, specifically with regard to retinal histology and expression profiles of microglia/glia- and apoptosis-related transcripts. Our experiments are in line with findings demonstrating that Egr1 / mice have no obvious defects in macrophage differentiation. 48 49 However, data from an antisense strategy demonstrate that Egr1 is essential for cell growth and macrophage differentiation. 40 50 51 These controversial results may be explained by functional redundancy of remaining family members Egr2, Egr3, and Egr4 which are often coordinately regulated. 52 To further unravel the role of Egr1 in retinoschisin-deficiency, it may therefore be necessary to simultaneously target several Egr genes. 
Commonly, programmed cell death is thought to activate microglia cells resulting in the clearance of dying cells, 53 although in some cases macrophage stimulation conversely has been demonstrated to trigger apoptosis. 54 55 56 We recently reported that postnatal photoreceptor cell death in the Rs1h /Y knockout mouse is due to extrinsic apoptosis at P18. 11 We have now defined the relative time course of microglia- and apoptosis-related events in this model and show that the two events can be unambiguously separated. Whereas immune-related genes are upregulated starting as early as P11, apoptosis-associated transcripts are increased in the Rs1h-deficient retina only after P16. We therefore conclude that microglia activation precedes the onset of apoptotic cell death and may even be involved in triggering apoptosis in the diseased retina. 
The goal of the study was to analyze molecular events caused by retinoschisin-deficiency in a mouse model for RS. Our findings indicate activation of the Erk1/2 pathway at P7 followed by an upregulation of transcription factor Egr1 at P9. Functional clustering highlights key pathways including adhesion, cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and glia-cell related immune responses. As apoptosis-related gene expression in the retinoschisin-deficient retina is not initiated before P16, we hypothesize that microglia/glia-mediated processes precede and may even cause events of programmed photoreceptor cell death. 
 
Table 1.
 
List of Genes Analyzed by DNA-Microarrays and qRT-PCR Analysis in Mutant (Rs1h−/Y) Versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Table 1.
 
List of Genes Analyzed by DNA-Microarrays and qRT-PCR Analysis in Mutant (Rs1h−/Y) Versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Age Unigene ID Gene Symbol Gene Name Function Array FC
P7* Upregulated
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 Immune response 4.0
 Mm.17484 Snca Synuclein, alpha Synaptic vesicle protein 4.0nc
 Mm.3959 Nell2 Nel-like 2 homolog (chicken) Adhesion 2.3
 Mm.66264 Stx6 Syntaxin 6 Vesicular traffic 2.2
 Mm.333349 Wnk1 WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 Signaling 1.9
 Mm.235863 Rcvrn Recoverin Photoreceptor protein 1.8
 Mm.35650 Tspan31 Tetraspanin 31 Unknown 1.8
 Mm.201322 Adnp Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein Neuroprotection 1.8
 Mm.2020 Csrp2 Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 Proliferation/differentiation 1.8
 Mm.233799 Igfbp4 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 Proliferation/differentiation 1.8
 Mm.207367 Zdhhc9 Zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 9 Signaling 1.8
 Mm.1574 Wasl Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-like (human) Cytoskeleton 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.12145 Rbbp4 Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 Nuclear protein −1.9
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A Adhesion −2.0
 Mm.4559 Ggt1 Gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 Glutatione metabolism −2.4
 Mm.332849 Wasf3 WAS protein family, member 3 Cytoskeleton −2.5
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −3.8c
P9* Upregulated
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 Ubiquitin metabolism 2.0
Downregulated
 Mm.34405 Casp3 Caspase 3 Apoptosis −1.8
 Mm.103669 Cabp5 Calcium binding protein 5 Calcium binding −1.9
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 Vesicular traffic −2.1
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) Chaperon −2.1
 Mm.378902 Cttn Cortactin Cytoskeleton −2.1
 Mm.278357 Kns2 Kinesin 2 Cytoskeleton −2.2
 Mm.3527 Ccng2 Cyclin G2 Cell cycle −2.2
 Mm.41642 Rgs4 Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 Signaling −2.3
 Mm.379376 Syt11 Synaptotagmin XI Synaptic vesicle protein −2.3
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin Cytoskeleton −2.3
 Mm.278865 Stxbp1 Syntaxin binding protein 1 vesicular traffic −2.3
 Mm.2154 Mxi1 Max interacting protein 1 Transcription factor −2.5
 Mm.3608 Pax6 Paired box gene 6 Transcription factor −2.6
 Mm.21281 Rnf4 Ring finger protein 4 Transcription factor −2.7
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 Vesicular traffic −2.7
 Mm.3193 Pkia Protein kinase inhibitor, alpha Signaling −2.7
 Mm.308180 Ptplad1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A domain containing 1 Signaling −2.7
 Mm.43871 Trim35 Tripartite motif-containing 35 Apoptosis −2.8
 Mm.4173 Mtap1b Microtubule-associated protein 1 B Cytoskeleton −2.8
 Mm.218820 Dnm1l Dynamin 1-like Cytoskeleton −3.0
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa Cytoskeleton −3.3
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −4.1c
 Mm.279256 Ndrg3 N-myc downstream regulated gene 3 Proliferation/differentiation −4.2
P11* Upregulated
 Mm.25168 Crip3 Cysteine-rich protein 3 Immune response 3.7
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 Ubiquitin metabolism 2.2
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 Immune response 2.2
 Mm.181959 Egr1 Early growth response 1 Transcription factor 2.0c
 Mm.234266 Sdc2 Syndecan 2 Vesicular traffic 1.9
 Mm.362054 Pigq Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class Q Adhesion 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.263396 Itgb1 Integrin beta 1 (fibronectin receptor beta) Adhesion −1.8
 Mm.5028 Inppl1 Inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 Immune response −1.8
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) Chaperon −1.8
 Mm.4950 Glp2 Interferon, alpha-inducible protein Immune response −1.9
 Mm.253090 Ap2a2 Adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 2 subunit Vesicular traffic −1.9
 Mm.24724 Ppp1r3c Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3C Glycogen metabolism −1.9
 Mm.294821 0610042115 RIKEN cDNA 0610042115 gene Unknown −1.9
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Differentiation −1.9
 Mm.1635 Pias3 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT 3 Immune response −1.9
 Mm.38993 Clstn1 Calsyntenin 1 Vesicular traffic −2.0
 Mm.1682 Ptpns1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type substrate 1 Adhesion −2.0
 Mm.270484 Mkrn1 Makorin, ring finger protein, 1 Ubiquitin metabolism −2.0
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin Cytoskeleton −2.0
 Mm.347910 Ing4 Inhibitor of growth family, member 4 Cell cycle −2.0
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 Vesicular traffic −2.1
 Mm.332967 Ube2h Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2H Ubiquitin metabolism −2.1
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A Adhesion −2.1
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa Cytoskeleton −2.2
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 Vesicular traffic −2.3
 Mm.295246 4632413K17 RIKEN cDNA 4632413K17 gene Unknown −3.0
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −4.0c
P14, † Upregulated
 Mm.288474 Spp1 Secreted phosphoprotein 1 Immune response 4.3c
 Mm.182785 Emp1 Epithelial membrane protein 1 Adhesion 2.5
 Mm.100144 S100a6 S100 calcium binding protein A6 (calcyclin) Calcium binding 2.4c
 Mm.46301 Tyrobp TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein Immune response 2.3c
 Mm.38498 Krt1-15 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 15 Cytoskeleton 2.3
 Mm.383993 Krt2-5 Keratin complex 2, basic, gene 5 Cytoskeleton 2.2
 Mm.239516 Clec7a C-type lectin domain family 7, member a Macrophage protein 2.2c
 Mm.175661 Ifitm1 Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 Immune response 2.2
 Mm.378931 Gsto1 Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 Detoxification 2.1
 Mm.15819 Cd68 CD68 antigen Macrophage protein 2.1c
 Mm.3999 Mpeg1 Macrophage expressed gene 1 Macrophage protein 2.1c
 Mm.347407 Cebpd CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta Transcription factor 2.1
 Mm.2409 Adh1 Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class 1) Detoxification 2.0
 Mm.1282 Ccl3 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 Immune response 2.0
 Mm.45436 Lyzs Lysozyme Immune response 2.0c
 Mm.355327 Dsp Desmoplakin Cytoskeleton 2.0
 Mm.4646 Krt1-13 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 13 Cytoskeleton 2.0
 Mm.22673 Fcer1g Fc receptor, IgE, high affinity 1, gamma polypeptide Macrophage protein 1.9c
 Mm.1239 Gfap Glial fibrillary acidic protein Cytoskeleton 1.9c
 Mm.248615 Lgals3 Lectin, galactose binding, soluble 3 Adhesion 1.9
 Mm.303231 Cxcl12 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 Immune response 1.9
 Mm.45173 Msr2 Macrophage scavenger receptor 2 Macrophage protein 1.9c
 Mm.275715 1700063D05 RIKEN cDNA 1700063D05 gene Unknown 1.9c
 Mm.42230 Cyp26A1 Cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 Retinoid metabolism 1.9c
 Mm.22723 Gpr126 G protein-coupled receptor 126 Signaling 1.9nc
 Mm.6974 Krt1-14 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 14 Cytoskeleton 1.9
 Mm.268000 Vim Vimentin Cytoskeleton 1.8
 Mm.244003 Scel Sciellin Epithelial barrier 1.8
 Mm.137 Ccl6 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 6 Immune response 1.8c
 Mm.271711 Tagln2 Transgelin 2 Cytoskeleton 1.8c
 Mm.2570 C1qb Complement component 1q, beta polypeptide Immune response 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.336111 Syt1 Synaptotagmin 1 Synaptic vesicle protein −1.8
 Mm.259879 Birc4 Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 4 Apoptosis/antiApoptosis −1.8
 Mm.272264 Stx3 Syntaxin 3 Vesicular traffic −1.8
 Mm.218473 Serinc3 Srine incorporator 3 Apoptosis/antiApoptosis −1.8
 Mm.296520 Vps35 Vacuolar protein sorting 35 Vesicular traffic −1.8
 Mm.306026 Epb4.1l2 Erythrocyte protein band 4.1-like 2 Cytoskeleton −1.9
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Differentiation −1.9
 Mm.279923 Nedd4 Neural developmentally downregulated gene 4 Ubiquitin metabolism −2.1
 Mm.1228 Cryaa Crystallin, alpha A Eye lens protein −2.2
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homologue (human) Adhesion −3.6c
Figure 1.
 
Molecular function annotation of significantly regulated genes at time points P7 (a), P9 (b), P11 (c), and P14 (d) in retinoschisin-deficient versus wild-type retina. Colored segments: common pathways recurring at different stages; gray segments: unique at one time point. All genes included in these pathways are listed in Table 1 .
Figure 1.
 
Molecular function annotation of significantly regulated genes at time points P7 (a), P9 (b), P11 (c), and P14 (d) in retinoschisin-deficient versus wild-type retina. Colored segments: common pathways recurring at different stages; gray segments: unique at one time point. All genes included in these pathways are listed in Table 1 .
Table 2.
 
List of Commonly Regulated Genes at Different Stages in Mutant (Rs1h −/Y) versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Table 2.
 
List of Commonly Regulated Genes at Different Stages in Mutant (Rs1h −/Y) versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Unigene ID Gene Symbol Gene Name Array FC Day
Upregulated genes
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 2.2 P7, P11
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 2.2 P9, P11
Downregulated genes
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) −1.8 P9, P11
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 −1.9 P11, P14
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 −2.1 P9, P11
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan. class A −2.1 P7, P11
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa −2.2 P9, P11
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin −2.3 P9, P11
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 −2.3 P9, P11
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homologue (human) −3.6 P7–P14
Figure 2.
 
Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially regulated genes in the retinoschisin-deficient (ko) versus wild-type (wt) retina. (a) Developmental time course of expression for Egr1 and (b) for the hypothetical transcript 1700063D05, respectively. (c) Profile 1 depicts the expression pattern of 10 genes, including Ccl6, Cd53, Cd68, Clecsf12, Fcer1g, Lyzs, Mpeg1, Msr2, Spp1, and Tyrobp whereas (d) profile 2 comprises five genes, including S100a6, Gfap, Cyp26a1, Tgm2, and Tagln2. The y-axis depicts the relative expression levels of the respective genes either separately for Rs1h−/Y and wild-type (wt) or for both conditions calculated by subtracting relative expression values of wt from ko. Error bars, SD. Statistical significance is given as *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.001 (Student’s t-test). Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and each were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 2.
 
Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially regulated genes in the retinoschisin-deficient (ko) versus wild-type (wt) retina. (a) Developmental time course of expression for Egr1 and (b) for the hypothetical transcript 1700063D05, respectively. (c) Profile 1 depicts the expression pattern of 10 genes, including Ccl6, Cd53, Cd68, Clecsf12, Fcer1g, Lyzs, Mpeg1, Msr2, Spp1, and Tyrobp whereas (d) profile 2 comprises five genes, including S100a6, Gfap, Cyp26a1, Tgm2, and Tagln2. The y-axis depicts the relative expression levels of the respective genes either separately for Rs1h−/Y and wild-type (wt) or for both conditions calculated by subtracting relative expression values of wt from ko. Error bars, SD. Statistical significance is given as *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.001 (Student’s t-test). Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and each were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 3.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of macrophage- (Cd68 and Clec7a) and apoptosis-related (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) transcripts. The onset of differential expression in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h−/Y) versus wild-type (wt) is distinctly earlier for Cd68 and Clec7a compared with Tnfrsf6 and Casp8.
Figure 3.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of macrophage- (Cd68 and Clec7a) and apoptosis-related (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) transcripts. The onset of differential expression in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h−/Y) versus wild-type (wt) is distinctly earlier for Cd68 and Clec7a compared with Tnfrsf6 and Casp8.
Figure 4.
 
Immunofluorescence microscopy on cryosections of Rs1h−/Y and wild-type mouse retinas at P14, P18, and P24. Macrophages-microglia were stained with the specific marker F4/80 (red), showing initial macrophage activation at P14 and more prominent labeling at postnatal day P18 and P24 in the Rs1h−/Y retina. Müller glial cells are stained with the GFAP antibody (green). Retinal sections of Rs1h knockout retina reveal cellular disorganization and small cavities starting at P14. Retinal layers are shown in the wild-type P14 image: outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL).
Figure 4.
 
Immunofluorescence microscopy on cryosections of Rs1h−/Y and wild-type mouse retinas at P14, P18, and P24. Macrophages-microglia were stained with the specific marker F4/80 (red), showing initial macrophage activation at P14 and more prominent labeling at postnatal day P18 and P24 in the Rs1h−/Y retina. Müller glial cells are stained with the GFAP antibody (green). Retinal sections of Rs1h knockout retina reveal cellular disorganization and small cavities starting at P14. Retinal layers are shown in the wild-type P14 image: outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL).
Figure 5.
 
Western blot analysis of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) and nonphosphorylated Erk1/2 (Erk1/2) performed on retinal protein extracts from single Rs1h-deficient (Rs1h−/Y ) and wild-type (wt) mice at P5, P7, P11, and P13. In comparison to the wild-type extracts, increased expression levels of pErk1/2 are apparent at P7 and P11 in the retinoschisin-deficient samples. The blot was reprobed with an anti-β-actin (Actb) antibody as a loading control.
Figure 5.
 
Western blot analysis of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) and nonphosphorylated Erk1/2 (Erk1/2) performed on retinal protein extracts from single Rs1h-deficient (Rs1h−/Y ) and wild-type (wt) mice at P5, P7, P11, and P13. In comparison to the wild-type extracts, increased expression levels of pErk1/2 are apparent at P7 and P11 in the retinoschisin-deficient samples. The blot was reprobed with an anti-β-actin (Actb) antibody as a loading control.
Figure 6.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 1700063D05, Cd68, and Gfap as well as genes involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) in retinal extracts from three mouse genotypes Rs1h+/Y/Egr1−/− , Rs1h−/Y/Egr1+/− , and Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− . The analysis was done for two stages at P18 and P24, respectively. Expression of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (Sdha) serves as control for cDNA integrity. Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 6.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 1700063D05, Cd68, and Gfap as well as genes involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) in retinal extracts from three mouse genotypes Rs1h+/Y/Egr1−/− , Rs1h−/Y/Egr1+/− , and Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− . The analysis was done for two stages at P18 and P24, respectively. Expression of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (Sdha) serves as control for cDNA integrity. Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 7.
 
TUNEL nuclei count for postnatal stages P18 and P24 indicates that apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) depends on the Rs1h genotype but not on the Egr1 genotype (**P < 0.001, Student’s t-test). Each column represents the mean of apoptotic nuclei counted in three retinal sections from three animals at P18 and P24, respectively.
Figure 7.
 
TUNEL nuclei count for postnatal stages P18 and P24 indicates that apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) depends on the Rs1h genotype but not on the Egr1 genotype (**P < 0.001, Student’s t-test). Each column represents the mean of apoptotic nuclei counted in three retinal sections from three animals at P18 and P24, respectively.
Supplementary Materials
The authors thank Heidi Schulz for help with the Exiqon Probe Library Kit. 
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Figure 1.
 
Molecular function annotation of significantly regulated genes at time points P7 (a), P9 (b), P11 (c), and P14 (d) in retinoschisin-deficient versus wild-type retina. Colored segments: common pathways recurring at different stages; gray segments: unique at one time point. All genes included in these pathways are listed in Table 1 .
Figure 1.
 
Molecular function annotation of significantly regulated genes at time points P7 (a), P9 (b), P11 (c), and P14 (d) in retinoschisin-deficient versus wild-type retina. Colored segments: common pathways recurring at different stages; gray segments: unique at one time point. All genes included in these pathways are listed in Table 1 .
Figure 2.
 
Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially regulated genes in the retinoschisin-deficient (ko) versus wild-type (wt) retina. (a) Developmental time course of expression for Egr1 and (b) for the hypothetical transcript 1700063D05, respectively. (c) Profile 1 depicts the expression pattern of 10 genes, including Ccl6, Cd53, Cd68, Clecsf12, Fcer1g, Lyzs, Mpeg1, Msr2, Spp1, and Tyrobp whereas (d) profile 2 comprises five genes, including S100a6, Gfap, Cyp26a1, Tgm2, and Tagln2. The y-axis depicts the relative expression levels of the respective genes either separately for Rs1h−/Y and wild-type (wt) or for both conditions calculated by subtracting relative expression values of wt from ko. Error bars, SD. Statistical significance is given as *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.001 (Student’s t-test). Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and each were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 2.
 
Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially regulated genes in the retinoschisin-deficient (ko) versus wild-type (wt) retina. (a) Developmental time course of expression for Egr1 and (b) for the hypothetical transcript 1700063D05, respectively. (c) Profile 1 depicts the expression pattern of 10 genes, including Ccl6, Cd53, Cd68, Clecsf12, Fcer1g, Lyzs, Mpeg1, Msr2, Spp1, and Tyrobp whereas (d) profile 2 comprises five genes, including S100a6, Gfap, Cyp26a1, Tgm2, and Tagln2. The y-axis depicts the relative expression levels of the respective genes either separately for Rs1h−/Y and wild-type (wt) or for both conditions calculated by subtracting relative expression values of wt from ko. Error bars, SD. Statistical significance is given as *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.001 (Student’s t-test). Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and each were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 3.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of macrophage- (Cd68 and Clec7a) and apoptosis-related (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) transcripts. The onset of differential expression in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h−/Y) versus wild-type (wt) is distinctly earlier for Cd68 and Clec7a compared with Tnfrsf6 and Casp8.
Figure 3.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of macrophage- (Cd68 and Clec7a) and apoptosis-related (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) transcripts. The onset of differential expression in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h−/Y) versus wild-type (wt) is distinctly earlier for Cd68 and Clec7a compared with Tnfrsf6 and Casp8.
Figure 4.
 
Immunofluorescence microscopy on cryosections of Rs1h−/Y and wild-type mouse retinas at P14, P18, and P24. Macrophages-microglia were stained with the specific marker F4/80 (red), showing initial macrophage activation at P14 and more prominent labeling at postnatal day P18 and P24 in the Rs1h−/Y retina. Müller glial cells are stained with the GFAP antibody (green). Retinal sections of Rs1h knockout retina reveal cellular disorganization and small cavities starting at P14. Retinal layers are shown in the wild-type P14 image: outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL).
Figure 4.
 
Immunofluorescence microscopy on cryosections of Rs1h−/Y and wild-type mouse retinas at P14, P18, and P24. Macrophages-microglia were stained with the specific marker F4/80 (red), showing initial macrophage activation at P14 and more prominent labeling at postnatal day P18 and P24 in the Rs1h−/Y retina. Müller glial cells are stained with the GFAP antibody (green). Retinal sections of Rs1h knockout retina reveal cellular disorganization and small cavities starting at P14. Retinal layers are shown in the wild-type P14 image: outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL).
Figure 5.
 
Western blot analysis of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) and nonphosphorylated Erk1/2 (Erk1/2) performed on retinal protein extracts from single Rs1h-deficient (Rs1h−/Y ) and wild-type (wt) mice at P5, P7, P11, and P13. In comparison to the wild-type extracts, increased expression levels of pErk1/2 are apparent at P7 and P11 in the retinoschisin-deficient samples. The blot was reprobed with an anti-β-actin (Actb) antibody as a loading control.
Figure 5.
 
Western blot analysis of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) and nonphosphorylated Erk1/2 (Erk1/2) performed on retinal protein extracts from single Rs1h-deficient (Rs1h−/Y ) and wild-type (wt) mice at P5, P7, P11, and P13. In comparison to the wild-type extracts, increased expression levels of pErk1/2 are apparent at P7 and P11 in the retinoschisin-deficient samples. The blot was reprobed with an anti-β-actin (Actb) antibody as a loading control.
Figure 6.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 1700063D05, Cd68, and Gfap as well as genes involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) in retinal extracts from three mouse genotypes Rs1h+/Y/Egr1−/− , Rs1h−/Y/Egr1+/− , and Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− . The analysis was done for two stages at P18 and P24, respectively. Expression of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (Sdha) serves as control for cDNA integrity. Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 6.
 
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of 1700063D05, Cd68, and Gfap as well as genes involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Tnfrsf6 and Casp8) in retinal extracts from three mouse genotypes Rs1h+/Y/Egr1−/− , Rs1h−/Y/Egr1+/− , and Rs1h−/Y/Egr1−/− . The analysis was done for two stages at P18 and P24, respectively. Expression of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (Sdha) serves as control for cDNA integrity. Experiments were performed with retinas from two different animals (four eyes) and were performed in triplicate measurements.
Figure 7.
 
TUNEL nuclei count for postnatal stages P18 and P24 indicates that apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) depends on the Rs1h genotype but not on the Egr1 genotype (**P < 0.001, Student’s t-test). Each column represents the mean of apoptotic nuclei counted in three retinal sections from three animals at P18 and P24, respectively.
Figure 7.
 
TUNEL nuclei count for postnatal stages P18 and P24 indicates that apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) depends on the Rs1h genotype but not on the Egr1 genotype (**P < 0.001, Student’s t-test). Each column represents the mean of apoptotic nuclei counted in three retinal sections from three animals at P18 and P24, respectively.
Table 1.
 
List of Genes Analyzed by DNA-Microarrays and qRT-PCR Analysis in Mutant (Rs1h−/Y) Versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Table 1.
 
List of Genes Analyzed by DNA-Microarrays and qRT-PCR Analysis in Mutant (Rs1h−/Y) Versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Age Unigene ID Gene Symbol Gene Name Function Array FC
P7* Upregulated
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 Immune response 4.0
 Mm.17484 Snca Synuclein, alpha Synaptic vesicle protein 4.0nc
 Mm.3959 Nell2 Nel-like 2 homolog (chicken) Adhesion 2.3
 Mm.66264 Stx6 Syntaxin 6 Vesicular traffic 2.2
 Mm.333349 Wnk1 WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 Signaling 1.9
 Mm.235863 Rcvrn Recoverin Photoreceptor protein 1.8
 Mm.35650 Tspan31 Tetraspanin 31 Unknown 1.8
 Mm.201322 Adnp Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein Neuroprotection 1.8
 Mm.2020 Csrp2 Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 Proliferation/differentiation 1.8
 Mm.233799 Igfbp4 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 Proliferation/differentiation 1.8
 Mm.207367 Zdhhc9 Zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 9 Signaling 1.8
 Mm.1574 Wasl Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-like (human) Cytoskeleton 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.12145 Rbbp4 Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 Nuclear protein −1.9
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A Adhesion −2.0
 Mm.4559 Ggt1 Gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 Glutatione metabolism −2.4
 Mm.332849 Wasf3 WAS protein family, member 3 Cytoskeleton −2.5
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −3.8c
P9* Upregulated
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 Ubiquitin metabolism 2.0
Downregulated
 Mm.34405 Casp3 Caspase 3 Apoptosis −1.8
 Mm.103669 Cabp5 Calcium binding protein 5 Calcium binding −1.9
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 Vesicular traffic −2.1
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) Chaperon −2.1
 Mm.378902 Cttn Cortactin Cytoskeleton −2.1
 Mm.278357 Kns2 Kinesin 2 Cytoskeleton −2.2
 Mm.3527 Ccng2 Cyclin G2 Cell cycle −2.2
 Mm.41642 Rgs4 Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 Signaling −2.3
 Mm.379376 Syt11 Synaptotagmin XI Synaptic vesicle protein −2.3
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin Cytoskeleton −2.3
 Mm.278865 Stxbp1 Syntaxin binding protein 1 vesicular traffic −2.3
 Mm.2154 Mxi1 Max interacting protein 1 Transcription factor −2.5
 Mm.3608 Pax6 Paired box gene 6 Transcription factor −2.6
 Mm.21281 Rnf4 Ring finger protein 4 Transcription factor −2.7
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 Vesicular traffic −2.7
 Mm.3193 Pkia Protein kinase inhibitor, alpha Signaling −2.7
 Mm.308180 Ptplad1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A domain containing 1 Signaling −2.7
 Mm.43871 Trim35 Tripartite motif-containing 35 Apoptosis −2.8
 Mm.4173 Mtap1b Microtubule-associated protein 1 B Cytoskeleton −2.8
 Mm.218820 Dnm1l Dynamin 1-like Cytoskeleton −3.0
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa Cytoskeleton −3.3
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −4.1c
 Mm.279256 Ndrg3 N-myc downstream regulated gene 3 Proliferation/differentiation −4.2
P11* Upregulated
 Mm.25168 Crip3 Cysteine-rich protein 3 Immune response 3.7
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 Ubiquitin metabolism 2.2
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 Immune response 2.2
 Mm.181959 Egr1 Early growth response 1 Transcription factor 2.0c
 Mm.234266 Sdc2 Syndecan 2 Vesicular traffic 1.9
 Mm.362054 Pigq Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class Q Adhesion 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.263396 Itgb1 Integrin beta 1 (fibronectin receptor beta) Adhesion −1.8
 Mm.5028 Inppl1 Inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 Immune response −1.8
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) Chaperon −1.8
 Mm.4950 Glp2 Interferon, alpha-inducible protein Immune response −1.9
 Mm.253090 Ap2a2 Adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 2 subunit Vesicular traffic −1.9
 Mm.24724 Ppp1r3c Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3C Glycogen metabolism −1.9
 Mm.294821 0610042115 RIKEN cDNA 0610042115 gene Unknown −1.9
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Differentiation −1.9
 Mm.1635 Pias3 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT 3 Immune response −1.9
 Mm.38993 Clstn1 Calsyntenin 1 Vesicular traffic −2.0
 Mm.1682 Ptpns1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type substrate 1 Adhesion −2.0
 Mm.270484 Mkrn1 Makorin, ring finger protein, 1 Ubiquitin metabolism −2.0
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin Cytoskeleton −2.0
 Mm.347910 Ing4 Inhibitor of growth family, member 4 Cell cycle −2.0
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 Vesicular traffic −2.1
 Mm.332967 Ube2h Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2H Ubiquitin metabolism −2.1
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A Adhesion −2.1
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa Cytoskeleton −2.2
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 Vesicular traffic −2.3
 Mm.295246 4632413K17 RIKEN cDNA 4632413K17 gene Unknown −3.0
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homolog (human) Adhesion −4.0c
P14, † Upregulated
 Mm.288474 Spp1 Secreted phosphoprotein 1 Immune response 4.3c
 Mm.182785 Emp1 Epithelial membrane protein 1 Adhesion 2.5
 Mm.100144 S100a6 S100 calcium binding protein A6 (calcyclin) Calcium binding 2.4c
 Mm.46301 Tyrobp TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein Immune response 2.3c
 Mm.38498 Krt1-15 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 15 Cytoskeleton 2.3
 Mm.383993 Krt2-5 Keratin complex 2, basic, gene 5 Cytoskeleton 2.2
 Mm.239516 Clec7a C-type lectin domain family 7, member a Macrophage protein 2.2c
 Mm.175661 Ifitm1 Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 Immune response 2.2
 Mm.378931 Gsto1 Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 Detoxification 2.1
 Mm.15819 Cd68 CD68 antigen Macrophage protein 2.1c
 Mm.3999 Mpeg1 Macrophage expressed gene 1 Macrophage protein 2.1c
 Mm.347407 Cebpd CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta Transcription factor 2.1
 Mm.2409 Adh1 Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class 1) Detoxification 2.0
 Mm.1282 Ccl3 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 Immune response 2.0
 Mm.45436 Lyzs Lysozyme Immune response 2.0c
 Mm.355327 Dsp Desmoplakin Cytoskeleton 2.0
 Mm.4646 Krt1-13 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 13 Cytoskeleton 2.0
 Mm.22673 Fcer1g Fc receptor, IgE, high affinity 1, gamma polypeptide Macrophage protein 1.9c
 Mm.1239 Gfap Glial fibrillary acidic protein Cytoskeleton 1.9c
 Mm.248615 Lgals3 Lectin, galactose binding, soluble 3 Adhesion 1.9
 Mm.303231 Cxcl12 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 Immune response 1.9
 Mm.45173 Msr2 Macrophage scavenger receptor 2 Macrophage protein 1.9c
 Mm.275715 1700063D05 RIKEN cDNA 1700063D05 gene Unknown 1.9c
 Mm.42230 Cyp26A1 Cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 Retinoid metabolism 1.9c
 Mm.22723 Gpr126 G protein-coupled receptor 126 Signaling 1.9nc
 Mm.6974 Krt1-14 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 14 Cytoskeleton 1.9
 Mm.268000 Vim Vimentin Cytoskeleton 1.8
 Mm.244003 Scel Sciellin Epithelial barrier 1.8
 Mm.137 Ccl6 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 6 Immune response 1.8c
 Mm.271711 Tagln2 Transgelin 2 Cytoskeleton 1.8c
 Mm.2570 C1qb Complement component 1q, beta polypeptide Immune response 1.8
Downregulated
 Mm.336111 Syt1 Synaptotagmin 1 Synaptic vesicle protein −1.8
 Mm.259879 Birc4 Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 4 Apoptosis/antiApoptosis −1.8
 Mm.272264 Stx3 Syntaxin 3 Vesicular traffic −1.8
 Mm.218473 Serinc3 Srine incorporator 3 Apoptosis/antiApoptosis −1.8
 Mm.296520 Vps35 Vacuolar protein sorting 35 Vesicular traffic −1.8
 Mm.306026 Epb4.1l2 Erythrocyte protein band 4.1-like 2 Cytoskeleton −1.9
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 Differentiation −1.9
 Mm.279923 Nedd4 Neural developmentally downregulated gene 4 Ubiquitin metabolism −2.1
 Mm.1228 Cryaa Crystallin, alpha A Eye lens protein −2.2
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homologue (human) Adhesion −3.6c
Table 2.
 
List of Commonly Regulated Genes at Different Stages in Mutant (Rs1h −/Y) versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Table 2.
 
List of Commonly Regulated Genes at Different Stages in Mutant (Rs1h −/Y) versus Wild-Type Retinal Extracts
Unigene ID Gene Symbol Gene Name Array FC Day
Upregulated genes
 Mm.38049 Tlr4 Toll-like receptor 4 2.2 P7, P11
 Mm.92529 Ubqln2 Ubiquilin 2 2.2 P9, P11
Downregulated genes
 Mm.256034 Cct3 Chaperonin subunit 3 (gamma) −1.8 P9, P11
 Mm.30837 Ndrg1 N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 −1.9 P11, P14
 Mm.5061 Arf2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 −2.1 P9, P11
 Mm.3781 Piga Phosphatidylinositol glycan. class A −2.1 P7, P11
 Mm.291928 Ctnnb1 Catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa −2.2 P9, P11
 Mm.295284 Stom Stomatin −2.3 P9, P11
 Mm.143603 Sh3gl2 SH3-domain GRB2-like 2 −2.3 P9, P11
 Mm.41982 Rs1h Retinoschisis 1 homologue (human) −3.6 P7–P14
Supplementary Table S5
Supplementary Table S1
Supplementary Table S2
Supplementary Table S3
Supplementary Table S4
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