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Jennifer R. Chao, Mei-Ying Lai, Stanley P. Azen, Ronald Klein, Rohit Varma, ; Retinopathy in Persons without Diabetes: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(9):4019-4025. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0206.
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purpose. To assess the prevalence of retinopathy and its relationship to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in a population-based cohort of adult Latinos without diabetes mellitus.
methods. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study comprising 6357 Latinos, 40 years of age and older, from six census tracts in La Puente, Los Angeles, California. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors and medical history. Color fundus photographs were taken and graded in a masked manner according to a modified Airlie House Classification Grading System. Participants underwent a physical examination that included height, weight, blood pressure, random serum glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and retinopathy in persons without diabetes.
results. The prevalence of retinopathy among individuals without diabetes in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) population was 6.6% (95% confidence interval 5.9%–7.4%). Stepwise logistic regression indicated that stage II hypertension (World Health Organization 2003 Guidelines), male gender, current smoking status, and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were associated with retinopathy (odds ratio = 4.3, 1.6, 1.4, and 1.3, respectively). No statistically significant associations with retinopathy were present for Native American ancestry; country of origin; health insurance status; history of cardiovascular disease; or history of aspirin, oral contraceptive, or hormone replacement therapy.
conclusions. The data suggest that the prevalence of retinopathy in nondiabetic individuals among Latinos of primarily Mexican ancestry is significant. Independent risk indicators for retinopathy in the study population are hypertension, male gender, current smoking status, and obesity.
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