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Ashok K. Dilly, Raju V. S. Rajala; Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor/PI3K/AKT Survival Pathway in Outer Segment Membranes of Rod Photoreceptors. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(11):4765-4773. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2286.
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© 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
purpose. The authors previously reported that physiological light induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors (IRs), which leads to the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (serine/threonine protein kinase B) survival pathway in rod photoreceptor cells. Tissue-specific deletion of IRs from photoreceptors resulted in stress-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is highly related in sequence and structure to the IR and shares 70% sequence identity overall and 84% identity within the tyrosine kinase domain. The role of IGF-1R in photoreceptor function is unknown. In this study the authors examined IGF-1R signaling in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes.
methods. IGF-1R localization was examined in the plasma and disc membranes of ROS. Activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway was analyzed using specific antibodies against phospho-tyrosine, IGF-1R, and phospho-Akt. PI3K activity was determined in the anti-phospho-tyrosine and anti-IGF-1R immunoprecipitates. Glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins containing two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of the p85 subunit of PI3K and their mutants were used to study the molecular interaction between IGF-1R and p85. In vivo IGF-1R signaling was studied in rats exposed to physiological light or to constant light.
results. IGF-1R is predominately localized to plasma membranes of ROS. These studies indicate that light stress results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-1R and an increase in PI3K enzyme activity in anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-IGF-1R immunoprecipitates of ROS and retinal homogenates. The authors observed that light stress induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-1R in ROS membranes, which leads to the binding of p85 through N-SH2 and C-SH2 domains. Finally, the authors observed a significant activation of Akt in light-stressed retinas, indicating activation of the Akt survival pathway downstream of IGF-1R activation.
conclusions. Light stress induced the activation of PI3K through activation and binding of IGF-1R, which leads to activation of the Akt survival pathway in photoreceptors.
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