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Vanessa Molloy-Simard, Jean-François St-Laurent, François Vigneault, Manon Gaudreault, Natasha Dargis, Marie-Christine Guérin, Steeve Leclerc, Mohib Morcos, Daniel Black, Yvonne Molgat, Dan Bergeron, Yvan de Launoit, François Boudreau, Serge Desnoyers, Sylvain Guérin; Altered Expression of the Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Enzymes in Uveal Melanoma and Regulation of PARG Gene Expression by the Transcription Factor ERM. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(10):6219-6231. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8853.
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Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a reversible post-translational modification that requires the contribution of the enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Our study explores expression and activity of PARP-1 and PARG in uveal melanoma cell lines with varying tumorigenic properties.
Gene profiling on microarrays was conducted using RNA prepared from the uveal melanoma cell lines T97, T98, T108, and T115. The activity of PARP-1 and PARG was monitored by enzymatic assays, whereas their expression was measured by Western blot and PCR. The PARG promoter was analyzed using promoter deletions and site-specific mutagenesis in transfection analyses. The transcription factors binding the PARG promoter were studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analyses. Suppression of PARP-1 and PARG expression was performed in T97 and T115 cells by RNAi, and their tumorigenic properties monitored by injections into athymic mice.
Expression of PARP-1 was found to vary considerably between uveal melanoma cell lines with distinctive tumorigenic properties in vivo. Sp1 and the ETS protein ERM were shown to bind to the PARG gene promoter to ensure basal transcription in uveal melanoma. Importantly, suppression of PARG gene expression in T97 and T115 cells increased their capacity to form tumors in athymic mice, whereas suppression of PARP-1 significantly reduced or almost entirely abolished tumor formation.
Our results suggest that while overexpression of PARP-1 may confer a proliferative advantage to aggressive uveal melanoma tumors, PARG may, on the other hand, support a tumor suppressor function in vivo.
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