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Michal Laron, Marcus A. Bearse, Kevin Bronson-Castain, Soffia Jonasdottir, Barbara King-Hooper, Shirin Barez, Marilyn E. Schneck, Anthony J. Adams; Association between Local Neuroretinal Function and Control of Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(11):7071-7076. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10570.
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To evaluate associations between neuroretinal function measured with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and disease variables in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and no retinopathy.
Fundus photographs, blood glucose (BG) concentration, HbA1c, and monocular mfERG were performed on 115 adolescent patients (mean age ± SD; 15.7 ± 1.8 years) and 30 controls (18.0 ± 2.8 years). All subjects had best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/20. The 45° mfERG stimulus included 103 hexagons, reversing between dark and bright according to a pseudorandom m-sequence. Amplitudes (AMPs) and implicit times (ITs) were derived from local mfERG response waveforms, and Z-scores were calculated. Retinal maps of abnormality frequencies were generated. Differences between controls and patients were evaluated using t-tests. Associations between mfERG and age, duration, and diabetes control were examined using linear regression analysis.
Mean mfERG IT was significantly longer in the patients compared with that in the controls (P = 0.019), but AMP was not different (P > 0.05). In all, 26 eyes (23%) of the patients had abnormal IT and 3 eyes (3%) had abnormal AMP. IT abnormalities were essentially distributed randomly across the retina. There were too few AMP abnormalities to examine their retinal distribution. IT was positively correlated with HbA1c (P < 0.0002) but not correlated with diabetes duration, BG, or age.
Higher long-term blood glucose concentration is associated with degraded neuroretinal function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and no retinopathy. Over 20% of these patients have abnormal neuroretinal function. It will be important to determine longitudinally whether the relationship between mfERG IT and diabetes control exists within individual adolescent patients.
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