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Lea D. Marchette, Huaiwen Wang, Feng Li, Mark A. Babizhayev, Anne Kasus-Jacobi; Carcinine Has 4-Hydroxynonenal Scavenging Property and Neuroprotective Effect in Mouse Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(7):3572-3583. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9042.
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stress induces retinal damage and contributes to vision loss in progressive retinopathies. Carcinine (β-alanyl-histamine) is a natural imidazole-containing peptide derivative with antioxidant activity. It is predicted to scavenge 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a toxic product of lipid oxidation. The aim of this study was to confirm the 4-HNE scavenging effect and evaluate the neuroprotective effect of carcinine in mouse retina subjected to oxidative stress.
HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze carcinine and 4-HNE-carcinine adduct.
Protection of retinal proteins from modification by 4-HNE was tested by incubating carcinine with retinal protein extract and 4-HNE. Modified retinal proteins were quantified by dot-blot analysis. Mice were treated with carcinine (intravitreal injection and gavage) and exposed to bright light to induce oxidative damage in the retina. Photoreceptor degeneration was measured by histology and electroretinography. Retinal levels of retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) were measured by immunoblot analysis, after exposure to bright light and in retinal explants after exposure to 4-HNE.
The ability of carcinine to form an adduct with 4-HNE, as well as to prevent and even reverse the adduction of retinal proteins by the toxic aldehyde was demonstrated in vitro. Carcinine, administered by intravitreal injection or gavage, strongly protected mouse retina against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration and had a protective effect on RHD12, a protein found specifically in photoreceptor cells.
This study suggests
that carcinine can be administered noninvasively
to efficiently protect photoreceptor cells
from oxidative damage. Carcinine could be administered daily to prevent vision loss in progressive retinopathies.
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