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Bum-Joo Cho, Jang Won Heo, Jae Pil Shin, Jeeyun Ahn, Tae Wan Kim, Hum Chung; Epidemiological Association Between Systemic Diseases and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(7):4430-4437. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-14379.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
We examined the epidemiological association between systemic diseases and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the general Korean population.
This cross-sectional study involved nationally representative data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 14,352 subjects aged ≥40 years participated in standardized health interviews regarding physician-diagnosis of several systemic diseases as well as physical examinations, including fundus photography for the evaluation of AMD.
The overall prevalence rates of early, late, and any AMD were 6.0%, 0.6%, and 6.6%, respectively. In univariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and sex as well as smoking in late AMD, any AMD and late AMD were less prevalent among diabetic patients and more prevalent in participants with a history of liver cancer. A history of liver cirrhosis was associated with a higher prevalence of any AMD. In the final multivariate model, the associated factors for any AMD included age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09), the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM; OR, 0.74), and a history of liver cancer (OR, 4.32). Factors associated with late AMD included age (OR, 1.09), ever-smoking history (OR, 2.45), the presence of DM (OR, 0.22), and a history of liver cancer (OR, 12.51). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was associated with a lower prevalence of any AMD (OR, 0.35).
When adjusted for confounders, any AMD and late AMD were less prevalent in diabetic patients. In contrast, a history of liver cancer was associated with a higher prevalence of any AMD and late AMD.
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