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Shinobu Fujii, Chikako Setoguchi, Kouichi Kawazu, Ken-ichi Hosoya; Impact of P-Glycoprotein on Blood–Retinal Barrier Permeability: Comparison of Blood–Aqueous Humor and Blood–Brain Barrier Using Mdr1a Knockout Rats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(7):4650-4658. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13819.
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© 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and blood–aqueous humor barrier (BAB) permeability, in contrast to blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability.
Permeabilities of six compounds, including P-gp substrates (quinidine, digoxin, and verapamil), were investigated in wild-type and mdr1a knockout rats using retinal, aqueous humor, and brain uptake index (RUI, AHUI, and BUI, respectively) methods and integration plot analysis.
In both rat strains, quinidine, digoxin, and verapamil were transported by P-gp across each barrier; however, the impact of P-gp on retinal uptake of quinidine and verapamil was less pronounced than that on brain uptake. The apparent influx permeability clearance (Kin ) values of verapamil in retina obtained from wild-type and knockout rats were similar (0.824 ± 0.201 and 0.849 ± 0.980 mL/min·g retina, respectively; mean ± SD; n = 3 rats). The Kin in aqueous humor and brain obtained from knockout rats was, respectively, 3-fold and 12-fold higher than that of wild-type (P < 0.05). In P-gp–deficient conditions, the RUI and AHUI of quinidine, digoxin, and verapamil, as well as the BUI of quinidine and digoxin, were decreased by P-gp inhibitors. However, the BUI of verapamil was not changed by P-gp inhibitors. Results suggest that carrier-mediated influx transporters exist in the blood–ocular barriers and that the function of verapamil influx transporters is markedly different between the retina and brain.
In both rat strains, P-gp operates in the blood–ocular barriers, and the impact of P-gp on BRB permeability to quinidine and verapamil is lower than that on BBB permeability.
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