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Yonathan Garfias, Alejandro Navas, Jessica Nieves-Hernández, Gibran Estua, Rodrigo Bolaños-Jiménez; Stromal Cells derived from Amniotic Membrane are capable to reestablish corneal opacity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):1014.
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Stromal mesenchymal stem cells are non-hematopoietic derived cells found in the bone marrow stroma such as in many stromal tissues. The amniotic membrane is an elastin and avascular fetal membrane that is in contact to the fetus. A mature amniotic membrane possesses 20-50 x 10 <6>mesenchymal cells. . By the other hand, there are many corneal disorders that directly affect the corneal limbus, driving inflammation, conjunctivalization or neovascularization of the corneal tissue. The pronostic depends on the injured area of the limbus where the corneal stem cells are localized. Although, it has recently reported that the cells derived from the amniotic membrane mesenchyma are source to adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and myogenesis, its function as a source for regeneration of the ocular surface has not been studied. The aim of the present study is to determine the utility of these cells to restablish the ocular surface in a chemical burn murine model.
Mesenchymal cells were obtained from a placenta using dispase/collagenase method. The cells were cultured and characterized by flow cytometry. Cellular transdifferentiation assays were performed using conditioned media. A murine chemical burn was performed in order to determine the efficacy of these cells to restablish the corneal clarity. Corneal histology was performed to identify the incorporation of human mesenchymal cells in the murine cornea.
The cells obtained from the amniotic membrane mesenchyma were capable to attach to the plastic wells showing a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells presented mesenchymal stem cell markers such as CD29, CD73, CD44 and CD105, meanwhile, they were negative to CD45 and HLA-DR. Interestingly, these cells were capable to differentiate into neurons and chondrocytes. When these cells were intracamerally injected in a mouse burn model, the corneal opacity was significantly reduced in comparison to the untreated cornea. When the histology of the cornea was performed, it was evident that the human amniotic membrane cells were incorporated to the mouse cornea, reestablishing the structure of the corneal tissue.
The use of cells derived from the mesenchyma of the amniotic membrane is an important cell source to be used in the regenerative ophthalmology.
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