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Tatsuya Mimura; Measurement of wheat-specific tear IgE in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):2073.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The allergy to the hydrolyzed wheat in facial soap is a major social issue in Japan. It has been reported that the most frequent early symptoms of allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap are allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis, and the development of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) could be induced by its long term use. We evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of wheat-specific tear IgE and features of allergic conjunctivitis.
A prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in 103 moderate to severe cases of allergic conjunctivitis (allergic group) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Specific IgE level for wheat was measured in tear fluid with an immunochromatographic assay (1-4) and a skin prick test (SPT) was also performed. A severity score (0, 1, 2, or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions.
The positive rate and specific IgE score were higher in the allergic group than in the control group (71.8 % vs. 40.0% and1.9 ± 0.7 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5). The prevalence of a positive SPT to wheat was higher in the allergic group than in the control group (6.8% vs. 0.0%). In the allergic group, the specific IgE score was higher in patient with positive SPT results than in patients with negative SPT results (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.6, p<0.001). In the allergic group, the wheat-specific tear IgE score was correlated with five features of allergic conjunctivitis (p<0.05).
These results suggest that wheat may be involved in the development of allergic conjunctivitis.
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