June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
Remote ischemia: effects on retinal function and neuroprotection in a light damage model
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • alice brandli
    Physiology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia
    Bosch institute, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Sharon Spana
    Physiology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia
    Bosch institute, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Jonathan Stone
    Physiology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia
    Bosch institute, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships alice brandli, None; Sharon Spana, None; Jonathan Stone, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 3259. doi:
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      alice brandli, Sharon Spana, Jonathan Stone, ; Remote ischemia: effects on retinal function and neuroprotection in a light damage model. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):3259.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: Remote ischemic pre-conditioning (RIP) has found to be protective of heart and brain against ischemic injury. We have tested the effects of RIP on retinal function, and whether RIP is protective to the retina.

Methods: To generate ischemia remote from the retina, one hind limb was made ischemic with a pressure cuff applied for up to 10 min. A temperature probe on the footpad confirmed blockage of the circulation. To test the impact of RIP on retinal function we recorded the dark-adapted flash electroretinogram (ERG) in Sprague-Dawley rat at baseline (n=5 group), and 10 mins after RIP (2x5 minutes: 5 minutes cuff on, 5 minutes off, 5 minutes on ) or sham RIP treatment . To test the neuroprotective potential of RIP, RIP (2 x 5 mins) was delivered immediately before exposure of the animal to damaging light (1000 lux, 24 hours, >12 hours dark adaption). 7 days later, the ERG was recorded and structural status of the retina were assess in 4 experimental groups (RIP-conditioned and light exposed, and three control groups -light damaged, RIP-exposed and untreated controls, n =6 per group). ERGs were analysed for the a- and b-waves, and expressed as percentage change (mean ± SEM).

Results: In the normal retina RIP increased the amplitude of a-(25% ± 3 vs -2% ± 1, P < 0.01, n = 5) and b-waves(27% ± 2 vs. 1.0% ± 1, P < 0.01). In the test of neuroprotection, RIP preserved photoreceptor and bipolar function against light damage (a-wave: 27% ± 3 vs. 7.0% ± 5, P < 0.01, n = 6) and (b-wave: 25% ± 4 vs. 3% ± 5, P < 0.01, n = 6). Muller cell upregulation of a stress-inducible protein was reduced (0.4 ± 0.09 vs. 0.5 ± 0.04 p< 0.0001, n = 6 ), the outer nuclear layer was thicker (0.3 ± 0.01 vs. 0.3 ± 0.0 p< 0.0001, n =6) and the number of cells undergoing apoptosis was less (250 ± 6 vs. 214 ± 6 p< 0.0001, n =6) in the RIP treated light exposed animals.

Conclusions: The effect of RIP on retinal function is a novel finding. Remote ischemic has marked neuroprotective effects in the retina, and may offer a non-invasive therapeutic treatment to prevent or mitigate photoreceptor degeneration of the retina.

Keywords: 695 retinal degenerations: cell biology • 648 photoreceptors • 508 electrophysiology: non-clinical  
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