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Yuichi Kaji, Hisashi Yagi, Yusuke Kato, Yuji Goto, Tetsuro Oshika; Benzalkonium chloride accelerates amyloid fibril formation in corneal dystrophies in vitro. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):4736.
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Corneal dystrophies are genetic disorders resulting in progressive corneal clouding due to amyloid fibril formation derived from the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene. Amyloid fibril formation is influenced by the presence of solvents and surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In the present study, we aimed to reveal the role of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and SDS in amyloid fibril formation of TGFBI-derived peptides in vitro.
Various concentrations of BAC or SDS were added to solutions of synthetic peptides corresponding to wild-type, Avellino corneal dystrophy, and lattice corneal dystrophy. The time course of the amount of formed amyloid fibrils in the solution was quantitatively measured using thioflavin T. In addition, the seeding effect of amyloid fibril formation was evaluated in the presence of BAC and SDS.
For all synthetic peptides, BAC and SDS accelerated amyloid fibril formation in both de novo and seeding models at 0.01 to 0.5 mM and 0.1 to 1.5 mM, respectively. BAC accelerated amyloid fibril formation in the in vitro models of corneal dystrophies.
The result indicates that most of the eye drops containing BAC may deteriorate corneal dystrophies. Eye drops that do not contain BAC would be preferred for patients with corneal dystrophies
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