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Ricardo Lamy, Elliot Chan, Hui Zhang, Vasant Salgaonkar, Chris Diederich, Jay Stewart; In Vivo Ultrasound-enhanced Penetration Of Topical Riboflavin Into The Corneal Stroma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5269.
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To determine whether ultrasound treatment can promote the permeation of topical riboflavin into the corneal stroma in vivo.
New Zealand white rabbits were used for the study. Treated eyes had a cup with riboflavin 0.1% placed over the central cornea and were treated with ultrasound 1 W/cm2 at 880 Khz for 6 minutes followed by the removal of the cup and the application of two drops of riboflavin solution every 3 minutes for 39 minutes. In the control eyes (no ultrasound) two drops of riboflavin solution were applied every 3 minutes for 45 minutes. Animals were then sacrificed, corneas were excised, and confocal microscopy was performed to detect the presence of riboflavin in the cornea.
Fluorescence intensity was significantly higher in the treated corneas (P<0.05). At a depth of 200 microns, average fluorescence intensity of riboflavin was 216.24 in treated eyes (n = 7), and 6.55 in control eyes (n=6).
Ultrasound treatment facilitated the entry of topical riboflavin into the corneal stroma. This approach may offer a means of achieving clinically useful concentrations of riboflavin in the cornea without removing the corneal epithelium, thereby improving the risk profile of corneal cross-linking procedures.
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