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Alex Creavin, Raghu Lingam, Kate Northstone, Cathy Williams, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5671.
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To explore associations between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and common ophthalmic abnormalities in children aged 7 to 8 years.
Data were analysed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort. DCD was defined according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Children with neurological difficulties such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy or an IQ less than 70 were excluded. Complete data were available for 7154 children. Ophthalmic abnormalities including visual acuity, refraction and binocular function were assessed using standard tests. After descriptive analyses, logistic regression models were used to assess the association between DCD and each visual difficulty.
Results: 120 children (1.8%) met the criteria for severe DCD and had available data from vision testing. Children with severe DCD were more likely to have ocular alignment or binocular vision abnormalities including clinically significant strabismus (OR 2.31 (95% CI 1.26-4.24) and stereoacuity worse than 60 seconds of arc (OR 2.75(1.78-4.23)). These children also had higher rates of estimated hypermetropia (OR 2.29(1.1-4.57). These associations persisted when adjustment was made for gender, birth-weight and socioeconomic factors. When children with strabismus were removed from the analysis, refractive error (linear x2 8.01 p=0.0182), abnormal motor fusion (linear x2 14.49 p=0.0007) and abnormal stereopsis (linear x2 14.49 p=0.0007) were over-represented in those with DCD.
Children with severe DCD had abnormalities in ocular alignment, binocular vision and refractive error. We recommend that children with diagnosed DCD are screened for visual abnormalities as early intervention may improve long-term visual outcome.
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