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Jesus Arrieta-Camacho, Enrique Graue-Hernández, Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Aida Jimenez-Corona; Visual Acuity and Associated Risk Factors in indigenous and non-indigenous Mexican population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5729.
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To determine the distribution of visual acuity and its associated factors in a population with high proportion of indigenous people.
: From a base-population study, the prevalence of diminished visual acuity in indigenous (IND) and non-indigenous (NIND) populations from Comitan, Chiapas, Mexico was estimated. All eligible IND persons were invited to participate, whereas NIND persons were chosen randomly. 865 individuals (612 indigenous and 253 non-indigenous) aged ≥20 years were examined. Subjects were considered IND either by self-report or if they spoke an IND language. Uncorrected and corrected visual acuity in both eyes (together and separately) by using the Snellen chart at the distance of 3 meters was evaluated. All analyses were carried out by using Stata 12.
Results: Visual acuity measurements were available for 865 subjects with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 20-100 years). Moderate visual impairment was higher in IND (6.7%) of that in NIND (3.2%) people (p=0.05). Subjects with moderate visual impairment were older (p<0.0001), had lower level of education (p<0.0001), had more diabetes (p=0.045), higher body mass index (p=0.0003) and higher cholesterol (p=0.048) that those with normal vision. Previous diagnosis of cataract was found in 24.5% and 1.4% of people with moderate and normal visual acuity, respectively. In multiple logistic regression analysis, IND people had 2.77 times (95%CI 1.06-7.27) the possibility to have moderate visual impairment that NIND people. Other significant covariates were: previous diagnosis of cataract (RM=9.38, 95%CI 3.05-28.83), age (RM=1.15, 95%CI 1.10-1.19), and illiterate (RM=4.03, 95%CI 1.02-15.90). The presence of diabetes had a borderline significance.
Frequency of moderate visual impairment was significantly higher in IND than in NIND people.
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