June 2013
Volume 54, Issue 15
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2013
Transcultural Validation of McMonnies Questionnaire for Mexican Population
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Alejandro Babayan
    Cornea, Fundacion Hospital "Nuestra Senora de la Luz", Mexico City, Mexico
  • Nallely Ramos Betancourt
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Francisco Beltran
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Jaime Martinez
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Concepcion Santacruz Valdes
    Cornea, Instituto de Oftalmología Conde de Valenciana, Mexico, Mexico
  • Cecilia Ramírez-Assad
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Elsa Mora Juarez
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Everardo Hernandez-Quintela
    Cornea, Asociación para evitar la ceguera en Mexico, Mexico, Mexico
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Alejandro Babayan, None; Nallely Ramos Betancourt, None; Francisco Beltran, None; Jaime Martinez, None; Concepcion Santacruz Valdes, None; Cecilia Ramírez-Assad, None; Elsa Mora Juarez, None; Everardo Hernandez-Quintela, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2013, Vol.54, 6049. doi:
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      Alejandro Babayan, Nallely Ramos Betancourt, Francisco Beltran, Jaime Martinez, Concepcion Santacruz Valdes, Cecilia Ramírez-Assad, Elsa Mora Juarez, Everardo Hernandez-Quintela, ; Transcultural Validation of McMonnies Questionnaire for Mexican Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):6049.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to develop a transcultural McMonnies questionnaire in Spanish for the Mexican population

Methods: Based on the MAPI Institute guidelines, the linguistic validation procedures consisted in the following steps: 1) The Central project manager team clarified the conceptual definition. 2) Two qualified translators, native Spanish speakers, living in Mexico, performed the forward translation without mutual consultation. 3) The Ocular Surface Disease Interdisciplinary Investigation Committee (OSD-IIC) instituted by four cornea specialists, an ocular external disease fellow, a rheumatologist, a health care professional and a psychologist reviewed the two translations and converted it to a consensus version. 4) Backward translation was performed by two qualified translators, native English speakers, without mutual consultation. 5) The Committee reviewed the reliability of the backward translation, comparing it with the original McMonnies questionnaire. 6) Cognitive interviews to a small sample of subjects were performed, during individual in depth, face-to-face structured interviews. During each interview, the Consultant asked the respondent to complete the questionnaire (self-administered). After completion, the Consultant asked whether the subject encountered any difficulty (ease of completion, comprehension problems) while responding, and asked for alternative wording for problematic items. The Consultant proposed alternatives. The suggested amendments and the report were sent to the Central Project Team. 7) The Central Project Team reviewed the report and provides feedback on the results of the test.

Results: During the forward translation step analysis, the OSD-IIC decided to add two words to the instructions section of the questionnaire to clarify it, and only one verb of questions 2 and 9 were modified for better understanding. The backward translation was almost identical to the original questionnaire in English. In the cognitive interviews, 25 respondents did not have any difficulty while responding the 12-questions McMonnies questionnaire and the consultants did not suggested amendments of word or phrases.

Conclusions: This study was able to provide an appropriate translation of the McMonnies questionnaire.

Keywords: 486 cornea: tears/tear film/dry eye • 669 quality of life  

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