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Rohit Khanna, Suneetha Sapur, Krishnaiah Sannapaneni, Gullapalli Rao; Dietary Glycemic Index and Risk of Age-Related Cataract: Findings from Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):895.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate the associations between the glycemic index (GI) of various carbohydrate food groups (rice, wheat, jowar and ragi) and cataract subtypes in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) cohort from Southern India.
A population-based cross-sectional epidemiological study (APEDS) was conducted between 1996-2000, wherein, a 95-item, standardized food frequency questionnaire was administered by trained professional in each household to ascertain data on nutrition. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated according to the National Institute of Nutrition (Government of India) guidelines. The data were analyzed for participants (n = 3723) aged 40 years and above. Lens Opacities Classification System-III was used for the diagnosis of nuclear cataract and Wilmer classification for cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to study the associations, adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, place of residence, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and hypertension.
Participants with higher GI were significantly from an urban location (p<0.001), who belonged to middle and higher socioeconomic groups (p<0.001), had a history of smoking (p<0.001) and higher BMI (p<0.001), consumed more carbohydrates (p<0.001) and presented with systemic conditions of hypertension and diabetes (P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher quartiles (Q3) of GI showed significant associations with higher prevalences of nuclear cataract (OR=1.83, 95% CI, 1.41 - 2.39), mixed cataract (OR=2.12, 95% CI, 1.47-3.06) and any cataract (OR=1.46, 95% CI, 1.14-1.87). Further, participants with intake of rice alone were more prone to the increased risk of nuclear cataract (OR=1.86, 95% CI, 1.47- 2.31) and any cataract (OR=1.53, 95% CI, 1.27 - 1.85).
A significant association was observed between food (like rice) with higher GI and cataract (nuclear, mixed or any cataract). Hence, cereals of less GI need to be included in daily food consumption to reduce the prevalence of cataract burden in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.
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