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F J Giblin, B Chakrapani, V N Reddy; The effects of X-irradiation on lens reducing systems.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1979;18(5):468-475.
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Studies have been made of the effects of X-ray on various lens reducing systems, including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) and of certain enzymes, including GSH reductase, GSH peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PG). It was found that during several weeks following X-irradiation but prior to cataract formation, there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the X-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the X-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls 1 week prior to cataract formation, and the ratio of NADPH to NADP+ in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the X-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in X-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1-14C-labeled glucose, G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the X-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to X-irradiation. The data indicate that X-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high-molecular-weight protein aggregates may be initiated.
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