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M L Putnam, R D Schoenwald, M W Duffel, C F Barfknecht, T M Segarra, D A Campbell; Ocular disposition of aminozolamide in the rabbit eye.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987;28(8):1373-1382.
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We have previously determined that 6-amino-2-benzothiazolesulfonamide (aminozolamide) significantly lowers IOP in rabbits and, more importantly, in ocular hypertensive human subjects. Results from in vitro experiments established that both the inhibitory activity of aminozolamide against carbonic anhydrase B as well as the penetration rate across excised rabbit corneas were equivalent to ethoxzolamide. Consequently, we have investigated the ocular disposition of aminozolamide to explain its activity when instilled topically to the eye. A constant concentration of 67.4 micrograms/ml of drug was applied for 90 min to the left eye of anesthetized rabbits. Drug and metabolite were measured in both aqueous humor and iris/ciliary body over time. The metabolite was collected and purified. Identification using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence scans indicated that the metabolite was 6-acetamido-2-benzothiazolesulfonamide. Relatively high levels of metabolite were identified in the cornea and iris/ciliary body but were much lower in aqueous humor. Tissue concentrations over time for the metabolite in iris/ciliary body were approximately 2-fold higher than levels of metabolite measured in aqueous humor. When compared to drug levels measured in either aqueous humor or iris/ciliary body, metabolite levels in these respective tissues were much higher. It is hypothesized that topical activity is a consequence of both metabolite retention in the iris/ciliary body as well as inhibition of 99+% of carbonic anhydrase. Both of these events must occur over a sufficient time period to effect a significant lowering of IOP.
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