January 1995
Volume 36, Issue 1
Free
Articles  |   January 1995
Hypophysectomy-induced regression of female rat lacrimal glands: partial restoration and maintenance by dihydrotestosterone and prolactin.
Author Affiliations
  • A M Azzarolo
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • K Bjerrum
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • C A Maves
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • L Becker
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • R L Wood
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • A K Mircheff
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
  • D W Warren
    Department of Physiology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science January 1995, Vol.36, 216-226. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      A M Azzarolo, K Bjerrum, C A Maves, L Becker, R L Wood, A K Mircheff, D W Warren; Hypophysectomy-induced regression of female rat lacrimal glands: partial restoration and maintenance by dihydrotestosterone and prolactin.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1995;36(1):216-226.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Previous studies have implicated androgens and one or more as yet unknown pituitary or pituitary-dependent factors in the regulation of certain lacrimal gland functions. Many observations suggest that prolactin (PRL) might well be one of these factors. This study was designed to determine the effect of hypophysectomy on biochemical markers of exorbital lacrimal gland secretory capacity and to determine the extent to which dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prolactin reverse these changes. METHODS: Female rats were hypophysectomized and, 5 days later, were treated for 2 days with DHT (0.25 or 1 mg/kg), PRL (1 or 5 mg/kg), combinations of the low or high doses of DHT and PRL, or vehicle only. The animals were killed, and crude membrane fractions were isolated from their lacrimal glands. An untreated group served as control. RESULTS: Lacrimal glands atrophied rapidly after hypophysectomy, losing 40% of their total and membrane-associated protein and 50% of their total DNA within 5 days. Total Na+,K(+)-ATPase and acid phosphatase activities and beta-adrenergic receptor number were decreased by half, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity and muscarinic cholinergic receptor number were reduced by 25% to 30%. DHT treatment increased total DNA above control values; it partially restored the amount of protein in the gland, the Na+,K(+)-ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, and the beta-adrenergic receptor number; and it fully restored the alkaline phosphatase activity. Prolactin treatment partially restored the amount of protein in the gland and the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; it fully restored the alkaline phosphatase activity and cholinergic receptor number; but it had no effect on the acid phosphatase activity or the beta-adrenergic receptor number. The high dose of DHT reduced the increase in cholinergic receptor number elicited by PRL. The high dose of PRL reduced the increases of total Na+,K(+)-ATPase and acid phosphatase elicited by DHT. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DHT and PRL exert general trophic actions on the lacrimal gland and specifically on lacrimal Na+,K(+)-ATPase, acid phosphatase, and neurotransmitter receptors. They also suggest that excessive levels of either hormone may be deleterious to secretory function. Because sex hormone levels are prone to wide fluctuations in women, our results also suggest a plausible hypothesis to account for the greater incidence in women of lacrimal insufficiency.

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