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J. Margaret Woodhouse, Mary Cregg, Helen L. Gunter, Daniel P. Sanders, Kathryn J. Saunders, Valerie H. Pakeman, Margaret Parker, William I. Fraser, Prema Sastry; The Effect of Age, Size of Target, and Cognitive Factors on Accommodative Responses of Children with Down Syndrome. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(9):2479-2485.
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purpose. To investigate possible factors that may be implicated in the poor
accommodative responses of individuals with Down syndrome. This article
evaluates the effect of age, angular size of target, and cognitive
factors on accommodation.
methods. Seventy-seven children with Down syndrome who are participating in an
ongoing study of visual development were assessed. One hundred
thirty-one developmentally normal children took part in a previous
study and provided control data. Accommodation was measured using a
modified Nott dynamic retinoscopy technique.
results. Children with Down syndrome showed considerably poorer accommodative
responses than normally developing children. No target used in the
present study produced an improved response in children with Down
syndrome. Age, angular subtense of target, and cognitive factors could
not fully account for the poor accommodation in children with Down
conclusions. Poor accommodation is a common feature of Down syndrome, regardless of
the target used. The etiology of the deficit has yet to be established.
It is imperative that educators and clinicians are aware that near
vision is out of focus for these children.
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