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Hin-Fai Yam, Alvin Kwan-Ho Kwok, Kwok-Ping Chan, Timothy Yuk-Yau Lai, Kwan-Yi Chu, Dennis Shun-Chiu Lam, Chi Pui Pang; Effect of Indocyanine Green and Illumination on Gene Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(1):370-377. doi: 10.1167/iovs.01-1113.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
purpose. To investigate the biological effects of indocyanine green (ICG) and acute illumination on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
methods. Three concentrations (0, 0.25, and 2.5 mg/mL) of ICG were applied to ARPE19 cells for 1 minute. After isotonic rinsing, the cells were irradiated with a light beam with a wavelength spectrum from 400 to 800 nm and an output of 1850 lumens for 15 minutes. The cells were collected at timed intervals for the investigation of cell death and expression of stress-response genes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis.
results. After ICG incubation, photoreactive changes were observed in the RPE cells. A reduction in cellular viability and considerable shrinkage of the cells were observed. The expressions of the apoptosis-related genes p53 and bax and the cell cycle arrest protein p21 were upregulated in cells treated with both ICG and light. Of the early-response genes, the expression of c-fos was specifically enhanced by light, with additive effects from the presence of ICG. Such stimulatory effects on these gene expressions were greater at 2.5 mg/mL than at 0.25 mg/mL ICG.
conclusions. ICG in the presence of acute illumination can elicit cell-cycle arrest and even apoptosis in RPE cells. The establishment of a safety level in the application of ICG in the region of 0.25 mg/mL is recommended.
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