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Rajendra S. Apte, Ramon A. Barreiro, Elia Duh, Olga Volpert, Thomas A. Ferguson; Stimulation of Neovascularization by the Anti-angiogenic Factor PEDF. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(12):4491-4497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-0172.
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purpose. Examine the effect of (pigment epithelium–derived growth factor; PEDF) on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
methods. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized and four laser spots were placed in each quadrant of the fundus with a krypton red laser (614 nm, 50 μm, 0.05 second, 200 mW). Animals were treated with various doses of PEDF administered with miniosmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously. Seven days after laser treatment, mice were perfused with 3% FITC high-molecular-weight dextran, the eyes enucleated, and neovascularization analyzed by confocal microscopy. Data were recorded as the volume of the neovascular complex. The effect of PEDF on endothelial cell migration, vascular tube formation in synthetic basement membrane, and VEGF production was also determined.
results. Mice receiving a lower dose of PEDF (90 μg/mL) had significantly decreased areas of CNV. A high dose of PEDF (360 μg/mL) significantly increased CNV, whereas an intermediate dose (180 μg/mL) of PEDF had no effect. PEDF inhibited endothelial cell migration and vascular tube formation at lower doses (0.5–5 μg/mL). High doses of PEDF (25–50 μg/mL) stimulated endothelial cell migration, enhanced vascular tube formation in vitro, and stimulated VEGF production from endothelial cells. Neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody completely reversed the stimulatory effects of high doses of PEDF on CNV in vivo.
conclusions. PEDF demonstrates opposing effects on CNV and endothelial cell function. Whereas low doses are inhibitory, high doses can augment the development of the neovasculature. These results suggest that the effects of PEDF on neovascularization are more complex than originally believed and that caution should be exercised when PEDF therapies are considered.
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