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Jiann-Torng Chen, Jy-Been Liang, Chung-Long Chou, Ming-Wei Chien, Ruey-Ching Shyu, Ping-I Chou, Da-Wen Lu; Glucosamine Sulfate Inhibits TNF-α and IFN-γ-Induced Production of ICAM-1 in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells In Vitro. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(2):664-672. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1008.
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© 2015 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
purpose. Glucosamine sulfate (GS) is a naturally occurring sugar that possesses some immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo, but its mechanism is unknown. We investigated whether GS could modulate the proinflammatory cytokine-induced expression of the gene for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an inflammatory protein in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
methods. ARPE-19 cells were used as a model to determine the effects of GS on the expression of the ICAM-1 gene upregulated by TNF-α or IFN-γ, by Western blot analysis and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The activation and nuclear translocation of the nuclear factors NF-κB and STAT1 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).
results. Both TNF-α and IFN-γ increased the expression of ICAM-1 at the mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells. GS effectively downregulated the TNF-α- or IFN-γ-induced expression of ICAM-1 in the protein and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner. GS further inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins in TNF-α and phosphorylated STAT1 in IFN-γ-stimulated ARPE-19 cells.
conclusions. GS inhibits the expression of the ICAM-1 gene in ARPE-19 cell stimulated with TNF-α or IFN-γ through blockade of NF-κB subunit p65 and nuclear translocation of STAT1. This study has demonstrated a potentially important property of GS in reducing ICAM-1 mediated inflammatory mechanisms in the eye.
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