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Jihan Akhtar, Vaibhav Tiwari, Myung-Jin Oh, Maria Kovacs, Aarti Jani, S. Krisztian Kovacs, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Deepak Shukla; HVEM and Nectin-1 Are the Major Mediators of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Entry into Human Conjunctival Epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(9):4026-4035. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-1807.
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purpose. The human conjunctiva is a natural target for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection. The goals of this study were to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HSV-1 entry into human conjunctival epithelial (HCjE) cells. Specific features of entry studied included the method of initial viral binding to cells, pH dependency, and expression and usage of specific HSV-1 entry receptors.
methods. To observe HSV-1 initial binding, live cell imaging was performed on HSV-1–infected HCjE cells. Reporter HSV-1 virions expressing β-galactosidase were used to determine entry of wild-type HSV-1(KOS) and a mutant, HSV-1(KOS)Rid1, into HCjE cells. HSV-1 replication in HCjE cells was determined by plaque assays. Lysosomotropic agents were used to determine whether viral entry was pH dependent. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of receptors. Receptor-specific siRNAs were used to define the role of individual entry receptors.
results. HSV-1 virions attach to filopodia present on HCjE cells and use them to reach the cell body for entry. Cultured HCjE cells demonstrate susceptibility to HSV-1 entry and form plaques confirming viral replication. Blocking vesicular acidification significantly reduces entry, implicating a pH-dependent mode of entry. Multiple assays confirm the expression of entry receptors nectin-1, HVEM, and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) on the HCjE cell membrane. Knocking down of gD receptors by siRNAs interference implicates nectin-1 and HVEM as the major mediators of entry.
conclusions. HSV-1 entry into HCjE cells is a pH-dependent process that is aided by targeted virus travel on filopodia. HCjE cells express all three major entry receptors, with nectin-1 and HVEM playing the predominant role in mediating entry.
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