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Eric G. Romanowski, Kathleen A. Yates, Y. Jerold Gordon; The In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of ddC as a Topical Antiviral for Ocular Adenovirus Infections. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(11):5295-5299. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-3286.
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To evaluate the antiviral activity of 2′, 3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC) in vitro against a panel of ocular adenovirus serotypes and in vivo in the ocular Ad5/NZW rabbit replication model.
In vitro, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ddC and cidofovir were determined using standard plaque-reduction assays. In vivo, 40 rabbits were topically inoculated in both eyes with Ad5 after corneal scarification. On day 1, the rabbits were equally divided into four topical treatment groups: 3% ddC; 2% ddC; 0.5% cidofovir; and saline. ddC and saline eyes were treated four times daily for 7 days, and cidofovir-treated eyes were treated twice daily for 7 days. Eyes were cultured for virus a multiple times over 2 weeks.
The in vitro IC50 for ddC ranged from 0.18 to 1.85 μg/mL, whereas those for cidofovir ranged from 0.018 to 5.47 μg/mL. ddC was more potent than cidofovir for seven of nine serotypes. In vivo, 3% ddC, 2% ddC, and 0.5% cidofovir significantly reduced the number of Ad5-positive cultures per total (days 1–14), mean Ad5 ocular titer (days 1–5), and duration of shedding (among other outcome measures) compared with the saline control. The 3% and 2% ddC treatments were significantly more efficacious than the 0.5% cidofovir treatment in the parameters listed above.
ddC demonstrated potent antiadenovirus activity in vitro and in vivo. Systemic safety studies after topical ocular administration are needed to evaluate ddC as a topical antiviral treatment for adenoviral ocular infections in the target population.
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