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Qiu-Xiang Zhang, Rong-Wen Lu, Christine A. Curcio, Xin-Cheng Yao; In Vivo Confocal Intrinsic Optical Signal Identification of Localized Retinal Dysfunction. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(13):8139-8145. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10732.
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Purpose. The purposes of this study were to investigate the physiological mechanism of stimulus-evoked fast intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) recorded in dynamic confocal imaging of the retina, and to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo confocal IOS mapping of localized retinal dysfunctions.
Methods. A rapid line-scan confocal ophthalmoscope was constructed to achieve in vivo confocal IOS imaging of frog ( Rana pipiens ) retinas at cellular resolution. In order to investigate the physiological mechanism of confocal IOS, comparative IOS and electroretinography (ERG) measurements were made using normal frog eyes activated by variable-intensity stimuli. A dynamic spatiotemporal filtering algorithm was developed to reject the contamination of hemodynamic changes on fast IOS recording. Laser-injured frog eyes were employed to test the potential of confocal IOS mapping of localized retinal dysfunctions.
Results. Comparative IOS and ERG experiments revealed a close correlation between the confocal IOS and retinal ERG, particularly the ERG a-wave, which has been widely used to evaluate photoreceptor function. IOS imaging of laser-injured frog eyes indicated that the confocal IOS could unambiguously detect localized (30 μm) functional lesions in the retina before a morphological abnormality is detectable.
Conclusions. The confocal IOS predominantly results from retinal photoreceptors, and can be used to map localized photoreceptor lesion in laser-injured frog eyes. We anticipate that confocal IOS imaging can provide applications in early detection of age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and other retinal diseases that can cause pathological changes in the photoreceptors.
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