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K N Gelatt, R L Peiffer, R M Gwin, G G Gum, L W Williams; Clinical manifestations of inherited glaucoma in the beagle.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1977;16(12):1135-1142.
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Inherited glaucoma was exhibited in 55 beagles. The glaucomatous process was divided into early (6 to 12 months of age), moderate (13 to 30 months of age), and advanced (31 months of age). In early glaucoma the tridocorneal angles, as judged by gonioscopy, were open and without anomalies, intraocular pressure was elevated, and the tonographic facility of aqueous outflow was decreased. With moderate glaucoma, the tridocorneal angles were typically open; intraocular pressure was elevated, facility of aqueous outflow was decreased; and variable optic disc cupping and focal disinsertion of the zonules from the lens were seen. Advanced glaucoma exhibited narrow to closed tridocorneal angles, decreased facility of aqueous outflow, elevated intraocular pressure, lens dislocation, optic disc atrophy, and finally phthisis bulbi. The beagle in the early and moderate stages of glaucoma, before angle closure and lens dislocation, is an animal model for studies in open-angle glaucoma.
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