June 1994
Volume 35, Issue 7
Free
Articles  |   June 1994
HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and color contrast sensitivity.
Author Affiliations
  • S A Geier
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
  • G Hammel
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
  • J R Bogner
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
  • U Kronawitter
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
  • T Berninger
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
  • F D Goebel
    Augenklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 1994, Vol.35, 3011-3021. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      S A Geier, G Hammel, J R Bogner, U Kronawitter, T Berninger, F D Goebel; HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and color contrast sensitivity.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1994;35(7):3011-3021.

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Color vision deficits in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease were reported, and a retinal pathogenic mechanism was proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of color vision deficits with HIV-related retinal microangiopathy. METHODS: A computer graphics system was used to measure protan, deutan, and tritan color contrast sensitivity (CCS) thresholds in 60 HIV-infected patients. Retinal microangiopathy was measured by counting the number of cotton-wool spots, and conjunctival blood-flow sludging was determined. Additional predictors were CD4+ count, age, time on aerosolized pentamidine, time on zidovudine, and Walter Reed staging. The relative influence of each predictor was calculated by stepwise multiple regression analysis (inclusion criterion; incremental P value = < 0.05) using data for the right eyes (RE). The results were validated by using data for the left eyes (LE) and both eyes (BE). RESULTS: The only included predictors in multiple regression analyses for the RE were number of cotton-wool spots (tritan: R = .70; deutan: R = .46; and protan: R = .58; P < .0001 for all axes) and age (tritan: increment of R [Ri] = .05, P = .002; deutan: Ri = .10, P = .004; and protan: Ri = .05, P = .002). The predictors time on zidovudine (Ri = .05, P = .002) and Walter Reed staging (Ri = .03, P = .01) were additionally included in multiple regression analysis for tritan LE. The results for deutan LE were comparable to those for the RE. In the analysis for protan LE, the only included predictor was number of cotton-wool spots. In the analyses for BE, no further predictors were included. The predictors Walter Reed staging and CD4+ count showed a significant association with all three criteria in univariate analysis. Additionally, tritan CCS was significantly associated with conjunctival blood-flow sludging. CONCLUSION: CCS deficits in patients with HIV disease are primarily associated with the number of cotton-wool spots. Results of this study are in accordance with the hypothesis that CCS deficits are in a relevant part caused by neuroretinal damage secondary to HIV-related microangiopathy.

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