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H N Schwahn, F Schaeffel; Chick eyes under cycloplegia compensate for spectacle lenses despite six-hydroxy dopamine treatment.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1994;35(9):3516-3524.
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PURPOSE: To test whether eye growth changes produced by spectacle lens wear are mediated by changes in ciliary muscle tonus in chicks. METHODS: Because there is evidence that deprivation myopia is based on a local-retinal mechanism in the eye that probably remains functional after cycloplegia as well as after ciliary ganglion or Edinger-Westphal lesions, none of these treatments provides insight into whether accommodation tonus is also important in the control of axial eye growth. Because 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) suppresses deprivation myopia, to isolate growth changes mediated by accommodation the authors injected 6-OHDA and paralyzed accommodation in addition (by corneal application of vecuroniumbromide). To quantify the state of cycloplegia, the abnormal pecking responses of cyclopleged chickens were studied. RESULTS: The authors found that cycloplegia could be maintained for 3 hours daily by corneal application of vecuroniumbromide. To ensure that visual exposure was restricted to the time period of cycloplegia, chickens were transferred to a 3-hour light/21-hour dark cycle. Control experiments showed that emmetropization was still functional under the changed light cycle. Strikingly, even with suppressed local-retinal growth control mechanisms (as indicated by the lack of deprivation myopia in a 6-OHDA injected group of chickens with occluders) and paralysis of accommodation, the eyes compensated for the defocus imposed by spectacles by changing their axial growth rates to be similar to those of eyes with functional accommodation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that the ciliary muscle and the activity of the iris sphincter muscle are not involved in emmetropization in chicks. If accommodation mediates the growth effects with lenses, it must happen via another pathway. Based on previous results, the authors propose that either the choroidal nerves from the ciliary ganglion to the choroid are important or that another yet unknown pathway from the Edinger Westphal nucleus to the eye transmits the necessary information.
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