November 1997
Volume 38, Issue 12
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Articles  |   November 1997
Platelet-activating factor induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in corneal epithelium. Requirement of calcium in the signal transduction pathway.
Author Affiliations
  • H E Bazan
    Louisiana State University Eye Center, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, USA.
  • Y Tao
    Louisiana State University Eye Center, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, USA.
  • M A DeCoster
    Louisiana State University Eye Center, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, USA.
  • N G Bazan
    Louisiana State University Eye Center, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science November 1997, Vol.38, 2492-2501. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      H E Bazan, Y Tao, M A DeCoster, N G Bazan; Platelet-activating factor induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in corneal epithelium. Requirement of calcium in the signal transduction pathway.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1997;38(12):2492-2501.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the induction of the inducible prostaglandin H synthase-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in corneal epithelium. METHODS: Rabbit corneas were incubated in organ culture with or without carbamyl PAF (cPAF, 100 nM). The effects of PAF antagonist BN50730 (10 microM), protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX; 30 micrograms/ml), RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D (50 micrograms/ml), and tumor promoter phorbol ester (TPA); (100 nM) were tested. Total RNA for corneal epithelium was analyzed by Northern blot analysis using mouse COX-2 cDNA fragments labeled with 32P as probes. Western blots were performed using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Primary cultures of rabbit corneal epithelium were loaded with the fluorescent dye fluo-3 AM and changes in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Platelet-activating factor induction of COX-2 expression was detectable by Northern blot analysis at 2 hours, peaked at 4 hours, and remained increased for as long as 8 hours. At 16 hours, there was a marked increase in COX-2 expression. The effect was abolished by the PAF antagonist. TPA also induced COX-2 gene expression. Neither PAF-nor TPA-induced expression was inhibited by CHX. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, there was a 50% inhibition of COX-2 gene induction by PAF. The calcium ionophore A23187 also caused an increase in expression of COX-2 messenger RNA; this did not occur in Ca(2+)-free medium. Confocal microscopy imaging showed that after the addition of PAF, there was a transient increase in [Ca2+]i in corneal epithelial cells that peaked between 30 and 60 seconds. The increase was inhibited in the presence of BN50730 or in a Ca(2+)-free medium. A23187 also caused a transient increase in [Ca2+]i that was not altered in cells previously treated with PAF or BN50730. CONCLUSIONS: PAF may enhance prostaglandin synthesis in the corneal epithelium by increasing COX-2 gene expression. This increase is by means of transcriptional activation of the gene and results in increased COX-2 protein formation. Influx of Ca2+ due to PAF stimulation is required to induce the COX-2 gene. A PAF antagonist abolishes all PAF effects and could be of therapeutic value by modulating ocular inflammation at the level of COX-2 gene expression.

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