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Muhammad Ayub, Andreas B. Thale, Jürgen Hedderich, Bernhard N. Tillmann, Friedrich P. Paulsen; The Cavernous Body of the Human Efferent Tear Ducts Contributes to Regulation of Tear Outflow. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(11):4900-4907. doi: 10.1167/iovs.03-0493.
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purpose. To test the hypothesis that the surrounding vascular plexus of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct contributes to the regulation of tear outflow.
methods. Experiments in 30 probands aged between 15 and 37 years were performed in both nasolacrimal systems of each subject by observing with an endoscope the transit time of an applied tear drop containing fluorescein dye until its entry into the inferior meatus of the nose. Four different experiments were performed to determine the median transit time under normal conditions and the influence on transit time of a decongestant drug, a foreign body on the ocular surface, and a decongestant drug applied together with a foreign body on the ocular surface. Comparisons were made between the right and left nasolacrimal system, in males and females, eyeglass wearers and non–eyeglass wearers, and the different experiments and the results statistically analyzed.
results. The tear transit time was independent of side (right or left), gender, or eyeglass wear. It showed great individual variability. Application of a decongestant drug or placement of a foreign body on the ocular surface both prolonged the dye transit time significantly. Application of a decongestant drug simultaneously with placement of a foreign body shortened the dye transit time significantly compared with the effect of the decongestant drug alone but revealed no significant difference compared with application of a foreign body alone.
conclusions. The cavernous body of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct plays an important role in the physiology of tear outflow regulation. It is subject to autonomic control and is integrated into a complex neuronal reflex feedback mechanism starting with the dense innervation of the cornea. Moreover, its function can be pharmacologically influenced.
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