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Kristian Klemp, Birgit Sander, Per Bruun Brockhoff, Allan Vaag, Henrik Lund-Andersen, Michael Larsen; The Multifocal ERG in Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy during Euglycemic Clamping. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(7):2620-2626. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-1254.
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purpose. Prolonged multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) implicit times have been observed in diabetes, although the acute response to hyperglycemia is an acceleration of the ERG. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that this discrepancy is caused by a protracted adaptational response of the retina to hyperglycemia.
methods. Fourteen patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy were blood glucose clamped at 5 mM for 75 minutes before the recording of the mfERG. The results were compared with those found in 14 age-matched healthy subjects.
results. During acute normoglycemia, patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy demonstrated an overall 1.36-ms delay of the P1 first-order implicit times (P = 0.0013) and a 0.72-ms delay of the second-order P1 (P = 0.0049) compared with healthy subjects at 4.9 ± 0.28 mM blood glucose. During acute hyperglycemia, the P1 first-order delay was only 0.81 ms (P = 0.02), and the P1 second-order implicit time was comparable to that of healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The magnitude of the diabetes-associated implicit time delay, at both levels of glycemia, was proportional to the level of chronic hyperglycemia at study entry, as expressed by the patients’ HbA1c.
conclusions. During acute normoglycemia, patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy demonstrated a delayed mfERG response compared with the healthy subjects. The delay was more pronounced during euglycemia than during hyperglycemia, and at both levels of glycemia, the delay was proportional to the patients’ habitual hyperglycemia. The results show that chronic hyperglycemia induces an adaptational response that tends to normalize retinal implicit times at a higher level of habitual glycemia.
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