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Arun K. Bajpai, Eva Blaskova, Suresh B. Pakala, Tieqiang Zhao, Wayne C. Glasgow, John S. Penn, Dianna A. Johnson, Gadiparthi N. Rao; 15(S)-HETE Production in Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Hypoxia: Novel Role for MEK1 in 15(S)-HETE–Induced Angiogenesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(11):4930-4938. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0617.
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purpose. To examine for the expression of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1) and 15-LOX2 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) and study the role of arachidonic acid metabolites of these enzymes in angiogenesis.
methods. Quantitative RT-PCR and reverse-phase HPLC analyses were used to determine 15-LOX1/2 expression and their arachidonic acid metabolites in HRMVECs. The role of MEK1 in 15(S)-HETE–induced angiogenesis was studied using HRMVEC migration, tube formation, and basement membrane matrix plug angiogenesis.
results. HRMVECs expressed both 15-LOX1 and 15-LOX2. Hypoxia induced the expression of 15-LOX1 and the production of its arachidonic acid metabolites 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) and 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE). 15(S)-HETE stimulated HRMVEC migration and tube formation as potently as 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In addition, 15(S)-HETE stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1, p38 MAPK, and MEK1 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Inhibition of MEK1 by pharmacologic and dominant-negative mutant approaches attenuated 15(S)-HETE–induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1 but not p38 MAPK. Blockade of ERK1/2 and JNK1 activation suppressed 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration and tube formation and basement membrane matrix plug angiogenesis. Inhibition of p38 MAPK attenuated 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration only. Inhibition of MEK1 also blocked 15(S)-HETE–induced HRMVEC migration and tube formation and basement membrane matrix plug angiogenesis.
conclusions. These results suggest that hypoxia, through the induction of 15-LOX1 expression, leads to the production of 15(S)-HETE in HRMVECs. In addition, 15(S)-HETE, through MEK1-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1, stimulates the angiogenic differentiation of HRMVECs and basement membrane matrix plug angiogenesis.
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