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Juan Huang, Li-Fang Hung, Ramkumar Ramamirtham, Terry L. Blasdel, Tammy L. Humbird, Kurt H. Bockhorst, Earl L. Smith; Effects of Form Deprivation on Peripheral Refractions and Ocular Shape in Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(9):4033-4044. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-3162.
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purpose. To determine whether visual experience can alter ocular shape and peripheral refractive error pattern, the authors investigated the effects of form deprivation on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys.
methods. Monocular form deprivation was imposed in 10 rhesus monkeys by securing diffuser lenses in front of their treated eyes between 22 ± 2 and 163 ± 17 days of age. Each eye’s refractive status was measured longitudinally by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at 15° intervals along the horizontal meridian to eccentricities of 45°. Control data for peripheral refraction were obtained from the nontreated fellow eyes and six untreated monkeys. Near the end of the diffuser-rearing period, the shape of the posterior globe was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Central axial dimensions were also determined by A-scan ultrasonography.
results. Form deprivation produced interocular differences in central refractive errors that varied between +2.69 and −10.31 D (treated eye–fellow eye). All seven diffuser-reared monkeys that developed at least 2.00 D of relative central axial myopia also showed relative hyperopia in the periphery that increased in magnitude with eccentricity. Alterations in peripheral refraction were highly correlated with eccentricity-dependent changes in vitreous chamber depth and the shape of the posterior globe.
conclusions. Like humans with myopia, monkeys with form-deprivation myopia exhibit relative peripheral hyperopia and eyes that are less oblate and more prolate. Thus, in addition to producing central refractive errors, abnormal visual experience can alter the shape of the posterior globe and the pattern of peripheral refractive errors in infant primates.
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