August 2009
Volume 50, Issue 8
Free
Anatomy and Pathology/Oncology  |   August 2009
Inhibition of Human Scleral Fibroblast Cell Attachment to Collagen Type I by TGFBIp
Author Affiliations
  • Lilian Shelton
    From the Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
  • Jody A. Summers Rada
    From the Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science August 2009, Vol.50, 3542-3552. doi:10.1167/iovs.09-3460
  • Views
  • PDF
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Lilian Shelton, Jody A. Summers Rada; Inhibition of Human Scleral Fibroblast Cell Attachment to Collagen Type I by TGFBIp. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(8):3542-3552. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-3460.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

purpose. Transforming growth factor β–induced protein (TGFBIp; 68 kDa) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that has been demonstrated to regulate cell attachment in a variety of cell types. The sclera synthesizes and secretes TGFBIp, which may function to facilitate scleral ECM remodeling events associated with myopia development. Here the authors report that human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) express TGFBI and that its protein product, TGFBIp, mediates an effect on cell attachment.

methods. TGFBI/TGFBIp expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunoblot of HSF lysates and culture supernatants. The effect of rTGFBIp (50 μg/mL) on cell attachment to collagen type I was determined with the use of fluid-phase cell attachment assays in HSFs, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), and human corneal stroma fibroblasts (HCFs). Binding assays using biotinylated rTGFBIp were used to assess TGFBIp binding to the HSF surface. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine both αvβ3 and αvβ5 expression and localization to the HSF cell surface.

results. HSFs expressed TGFBI and secreted TGFBIp (∼833 ng/h). rTGFBIp significantly decreased (25 μg/mL; P ≤ 0.05) HSF attachment to collagen type I, whereas rTGFBIp did not significantly affect cell attachment of HFFs (P = 0.50) or HCFs (P = 0.24) to collagen compared with BSA. Integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 were detected on the cell surface, and both anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 functionally blocked rTGFBIp binding to HSFs.

conclusions. TGFBIp plays an inhibitory role in HSF attachment to collagen type I in vitro through interactions with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin receptors. These results suggest that TGFBIp may modulate scleral cell–matrix interactions in vivo, thereby affecting scleral viscoelasticity.

The mammalian sclera provides structural support for the delicate inner ocular tissues and defines the size, shape, and refractive status of the eye. The sclera is a dense connective tissue consisting largely of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing collagen types I and III (Zorn N, et al. IOVS 1992;33:ARVO Abstract S1053; Norton TT, et al. IOVS 1995;36:ARVO Abstract S760) 1 2 3 and lesser amounts of collagens IV, V, VI, VIII, XII, and XIII (Zorn N, et al. IOVS 1992;33:ARVO Abstract S1053; Norton TT, et al. IOVS 1995;36:ARVO Abstract S760), 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 proteoglycans (Johnson JM, et al. IOVS 2002;43:ARVO E-Abstract 1100), 8 9 10 11 12 and noncollagenous glycoproteins. 13 14 The scleral ECM is organized into irregularly arranged collagenous lamellae that are continuous with the highly ordered collagenous lamellae of the cornea at the corneal limbus. Located between the collagenous lamellae of the sclera are scleral fibroblasts that are responsible for the synthesis and turnover of the scleral ECM. 15  
Myopia is a common abnormal visual condition characterized by a negative refractive error that occurs when the eye is too long for its focal length. In humans, this ocular elongation is associated with significant scleral thinning and alterations in collagen fibril density and morphology at the posterior pole of the eye. 16 17 18 Mammalian models of myopia have also demonstrated scleral thinning as well as changes in gene expression and protein synthesis during the development of myopia. 15 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 More specifically, myopia development in mammals is associated with a decreased rate of proteoglycan synthesis, 20 24 27 28 decreased collagen fibril diameter and synthesis, 3 18 21 29 and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity. 21 30 31 32 Although the events leading to myopia development are not clear, these biochemical changes in the scleral extracellular matrix have been associated with alterations in the biomechanical properties of the sclera and are thought to be responsible for the increased rate of ocular elongation and myopia development. 33 34 35  
Of much interest are the molecular mechanisms that regulate scleral cell–matrix interactions under normal ocular growth conditions and under conditions of increased ocular elongation and myopia development. Observations in animal models strongly suggest that local factors within the eye play important roles in the regulation of ocular growth. 19 36 37 38 39 40 Furthermore, scleral proteoglycan synthesis has been shown to be regulated in part by the involvement of the underlying vascular layer of the eye, the choroid. 41 42 43 These studies suggest that the eye is not dependent on the brain for visually guided growth regulation but, rather, is dependent on a cascade of chemical events extending from the retina to the sclera that act to control vitreous chamber elongation. 
Recently, microarray analyses were used to identify genes differentially expressed in choroid/RPEs in eyes of young marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during varying ocular growth states. 44 The transforming growth factor β-inducible gene-h3 (TGFBI; also known as BIGH3, βIGH3) was shown to be significantly increased in the choroid/RPE of eyes compensating for −5 D lenses (relative myopia) compared with contralateral +5 D lens–treated eyes (relative hyperopia). Additionally, expression of the TGFBI gene product TGFBIp (also known as BIGH3, βIG-H3, and keratoepithelin) 45 46 was identified in marmoset and human cornea and choroid/RPE and was also present at high levels in the sclera. 44  
To date, several studies have suggested that TGFBIp plays a functional role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, wound healing, inflammation, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, nephropathies, and corneal dystrophy. 47 Until now, TGFBI/TGFBIp expression and its possible functional role(s) in the sclera have not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, in vitro analyses using primary human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) were undertaken to evaluate the scleral expression of TGFBI/TGFBIp and to determine its role in mediating scleral fibroblast attachment to collagen type I. The results of these studies demonstrate that TGFBIp selectively and specifically inhibits attachment of HSFs to collagen type I, most likely through interactions with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin receptors located on the HSF cell surface. These results may provide insight into the role of TGFBIp in scleral remodeling events required for normal ocular growth and during the development of myopia. 
Methods
Cell Culture
Primary HSFs were isolated from explants of human donor sclera as previously described and stored in liquid nitrogen until use. 48 49 Primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were isolated from stromal explants from the central regions of human donor corneas as previously described and stored in liquid nitrogen until use. 50 HSFs passages 4 to 6 (P4–6) and HCFs P6–9 were cultured on 100-mm plates containing Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM), penicillin (100 U/mL)-streptomycin (100 μg/mL), amphotericin B (0.0025 μg/mL; 1× a/a [Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA]), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37°C with 95% air/5% CO2. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) P3–6 were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and were cultured in Iscove modified Eagle medium (IMEM; ATCC) containing 1× a/a and 10% FBS at 37°C with 95% air/5% CO2. HSF-conditioned medium was obtained from confluent cultures by replacing the culture media with serum-limiting media (DMEM containing 1× a/a and 0.05% FBS) and incubating the media for 48 hours at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2. For cell attachment assays (see below), culture media were removed from confluent cultures, and cells were rinsed once and incubated in 0.53 mM EDTA in Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at 37°C for 10 minutes After incubation in 0.53 mM EDTA, cells were detached by gentle pipetting, centrifuged, and resuspended in DMEM containing 1× a/a before counting with a hemocytometer. 
RNA Isolation and Cell Lysate Preparation
After the 48-hour incubation, the conditioned media were collected, and either RNA was isolated or cell lysates were obtained from the HSF cell layers. Total RNA was isolated from HSF monolayers using reagent (Trizol; Invitrogen) according to the standard protocol, as previously described. 44 Isolation of whole cell extracts was performed using a commercial mammalian cell lysis buffer (M-PER; Pierce Chemical, Rockville, IL), protease inhibitor cocktail set 1 (EMD Biosciences, San Diego, CA), phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO), and NaCl. Protease inhibitor cocktail set 1 contained five protease inhibitors that inhibited a broad range of proteases (500 μM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride-hydrochloride, 150 nM aprotinin, 1 μM E-64 protease inhibitor, 0.5 mM EDTA-disodium, 1 μM leupeptin-hemisulfate), and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 contained a proprietary mixture of inhibitors that inhibited acid and alkaline phosphatases and tyrosine protein phosphatases (sodium orthovanadate, sodium molybdate, sodium tartrate, imidazole). The lysis buffer was prepared by diluting protease inhibitor cocktail set 1 (1:100) and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail set 2 (1:100) in mammalian cell lysis buffer (4.6 mL; M-PER; Pierce Chemical) containing 150 mM NaCl. Briefly, the cells were washed with ice-cold PBS for 1 minute before the addition of lysis buffer (200 μL/plate), then scraped with a rubber policeman and collected. After incubation (15 minutes) on ice and centrifugation (12,000g) for 5 minutes, the supernatant was collected and stored at −20°C until use. 
Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction
cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using MuLV reverse transcriptase together with random hexamers, dNTPs in the presence of PCR buffer, 25 mM MgCl2, and RNase inhibitor (GeneAmp kit; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) as previously described. 44 48 Primers specific for human TGFBI and cyclophilin A (peptidylprolyl isomerase A [PPIA]) were designed and purchased using BLAST, Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer3/primer3_www.cgi) and Sigma-Genosys (St. Louis, MO), respectively, and diluted to 15 μM in RNase-free water as previously described. 44 PPIA served as a positive control in this study because it has been routinely used as a housekeeping gene to normalize for gene expression differences and has previously been shown to consistently generate high-quality PCR products with a high efficiency while showing no significant differences in steady state mRNA levels in the choroid/RPE of minus lens-treated eyes (undergoing relative myopia development) compared with that of plus lens-treated eyes (undergoing relative hyperopia development) in marmosets. 44  
Each reaction underwent 35 amplification cycles consisting of denaturation at 94°C for 30 seconds, annealing for 30 seconds at 60°C, and extension for 30 seconds at 72°C using a thermal cycler (DNA thermal cycler 480; Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT). To control for genomic DNA contamination, reverse transcriptase was omitted from some samples before PCR amplification. Aliquots of each PCR reaction were electrophoresed on a 1.5% agarose gel containing ethidium bromide (0.5 μg/mL) and visualized on an imager (Chemigenius; Syngene USA, Frederick, MD). 
Western Blot Analysis
After 48 hours of incubation in DMEM + 0.05% FBS, conditioned medium was collected from HSF cell cultures, and cell lysates were dried under a vacuum in a concentrator (Speed-Vac; Savant, Holbrook, NY) and reconstituted in one-tenth of the original volume with RNase-free water to concentrate the intracellular TGFBIp protein. Scleral cell lysates and aliquots of conditioned medium were directly applied to 10% SDS-PAGE gels (Bis-Tris Gel NuPAGE; Invitrogen). Gel samples were electrophoresed under reducing conditions and electroblotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane using an electro-transfer unit (XCELL Sureback Electrophoresis Cell; Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Blots were blocked with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20 and casein-based blocking agent (0.2% I-Block; Tropix, Bedford, MA) for 1 hour and then probed with anti–human TGFBIp (1:500; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) or mouse monoclonal α-tubulin (1:10,000; Abcam, Cambridge, MA) antibodies overnight at 4°C. Anti–human TGFBIp is a polyclonal antibody that was produced in goats immunized with purified, NS0-derived (mouse myeloma cell line), mature recombinant human TGFBIp protein (Gly 24-His 683). 45 The specific epitope(s) this antibody recognizes has not been characterized but has been used in a previous study to recognize a 68-kDa band in primate ocular tissues. 44 Immunoblots were then washed three times for 10 minutes with PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20 and incubated with rabbit anti–goat IgG (whole molecule) conjugated to alkaline phosphatase or goat anti–mouse IgG (whole molecule) conjugated to alkaline phosphatase secondary antibodies (1:1000; Sigma) for 1 hour at room temperature. After incubation with secondary antibody, blots were washed, incubated (CDP-Star Ready-to-Use with Nitro-BlockII; Tropix, Bedford, MA) for 5 minutes, and then imaged (Chemigenius; Syngene USA) or exposed to film. In some cases, protein-blocking experiments were carried out in which anti–human TGFBIp was preincubated with an equimolar amount (1 μM) of human recombinant TGFBIp (rTGFBIp; R&D Systems) for 1 hour at room temperature before use in Western blots. 
Cell Attachment Assay
Ninety-six-well plates were precoated with 10 μg/mL rat tail collagen type I (100 μL/well; Sigma-Aldrich) and incubated overnight at 4°C. After removing excess liquid from the wells, the plate was sterilized in ultraviolet light under a culture hood overnight, and the wells were rinsed with PBS. HSFs were resuspended in DMEM/1× a/a containing 0.5% FBS at a concentration of 2000 cells/200 μL containing 0 to 50 μg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA; Sigma), fibronectin (FN; Sigma) or rTGFBIp. For antibody-blocking experiments, an equimolar amount of anti-TGFBIp antibody (50 μg/mL; R&D Systems) was preincubated with rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL; R&D Systems) for 1 hour at room temperature before cells were added. Cells were immediately seeded in triplicate (2000 cells/well) to collagen-coated plates and permitted to attach for 45 minutes at 37°C (95% air containing 5% CO2) before gently rinsing off the unattached cells twice with PBS. Finally, toluidine blue (150 μL; 0.5% toluidine blue stain in 4% paraformaldehyde [wt/vol]) was added to each well for 5 minutes at room temperature and removed, and the wells were rinsed three times with ultrapure water (Milli-Q; Millipore, Temecula, CA) before solubilization with 1% SDS (250 μL). Cell numbers were determined by reading absorbance at 595 nm using a plate reader (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and comparing that to a standard curve prepared from 0 to 10,000 cells/well. 
TGFBIp Binding Assay
rTGFBIp (R&D Systems) was biotinylated with a biotinylation kit (EZ-Link Micro Sulfo-NHS; Pierce, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 11 mM sulfo-NHS-biotin in PBS was added in a 50-fold molar excess to rTGFBIp (6 μL; 11 mM Sulfo-NHS-biotin in PBS/per 500 μL rTGFBIp) and incubated while rotating at room temperature for 1 hour. During the incubation, a desalt spin column (Zeba; Pierce) was prepared by centrifugation at 1000g for 2 minutes (Sorvall RT 6000D; DuPont, Hoffman Estates, IL) to remove the storage buffer and equilibrate the column (three washes with 1 mL PBS). After the 1-hour incubation, the protein-biotin mixture was placed onto the column and allowed to absorb into the resin before centrifugation at 1000g for 2 minutes. The flow through, consisting of purified biotinylated rTGFBIp, was collected and stored at −20°C until use. The bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay (Pierce Chemical) was used to determine the concentration of the biotinylated rTGFBIp spectrophotometer (NanoDrop ND-1000; NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE) as previously described. 44  
Binding assays were performed as described previously with slight modification. 51 52 53 HSFs were suspended in serum-free medium (DMEM + 1× a/a) at a density of 1 × 105 cells/mL, centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C, washed in ice-cold PBS, recentrifuged at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes, and reconstituted in serum-free medium containing biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) and incubated at 4°C for 5 hours with rotation. Next, the cells were washed three times with ice-cold PBS and were lysed by the addition of 100 μL cell lysis buffer. Equal amounts (10 μL) of protein from each sample were separated on a 10% SDS-PAGE gel and then transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane. Biotinylated rTGFBIp was visualized by incubation of membranes with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (1:3000; Sigma). Biotinylated and nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp were also visualized by incubating the blots with anti-TGFBIp antibody (1:500) overnight at 4°C followed by incubation with anti–goat IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase and imaged with CDP-Star chemiluminescent substrate. After detection of biotinylated rTGFBIp, blots were stripped (Restore Plus Western Blot Stripping Buffer; Pierce) according to the manufacturer’s protocol and were reprobed with α-tubulin antibody (1:10,000) for an internal control. For some experiments, 1 mL HSF cell suspension was preincubated with anti–mouse αvβ3 or anti–mouse αvβ5 integrin antibody (final concentration, 0–10 μg/mL; Millipore) for 1 hour at 4°C with rotation before washing three times with ice-cold PBS and incubation with biotinylated rTGFBIp. 
Additionally, competitive displacement experiments were carried out in which HSFs were incubated with nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) in serum-free medium for 3 hours at 4°C, washed in ice-cold PBS, and incubated with 10 μg/mL biotinylated rTGFBIp for 3 hours at 4°C. Cells were washed again and lysed, and biotinylated and total rTGFBIp were detected by Western blot analysis using streptavidin and anti-TGFBIp, respectively, as described. 
Flow Cytometric Analysis
To confirm the expression of a specific integrin(s) on the surfaces of HSFs, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses were performed. HSFs were grown to confluence in serum-containing medium and detached from plates by treatment with HBSS containing 0.05% EDTA, as described previously. The cells were rinsed twice in wash buffer (PBS containing 0.1% BSA), resuspended in wash buffer at a concentration of 1 × 105 cells/mL, and incubated for 1 hour at 4°C with 4 μg/mL of monoclonal mouse anti–integrin αvβ3 (clone LM609) or anti-αvβ5 (clone P1F6) antibodies (Millipore). Cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 1000 rpm for 5 minutes, supernatants were removed, and cell pellets were rinsed three times with wash buffer. Cells were then incubated in the dark for 1 hour at 4°C with 10 μg/mL Alexa Fluor 568 rabbit anti–mouse IgG (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). Cells were pelleted, washed again, and analyzed on a flow cytometry system (FACSCalibur; Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). 
Immunofluorescence
HSFs were grown in 100-mm dishes in serum-containing medium, detached, and seeded onto 12-mm round coverslips in a 24-well culture dish in serum-containing medium (Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY). After 24 hours of incubation at 37°C, the culture media were aspirated, and the coverslips were washed twice with PBS containing 0.5 mM CaCl2 and MgCl2 (PBS++) to remove unattached cells. Cells were then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in wash buffer for 5 minutes at room temperature, followed by a 15-minute incubation in 4% paraformaldehyde on ice before washing 3× for 5 minutes with wash buffer. Coverslips containing fixed cells were incubated with nonimmune mouse IgG, anti-TGFBIp, anti-αvβ3 or anti-αvβ5 antibodies (1:100 dilution in PBS++ containing 0.1% FBS) for 1 hour at room temperature. After washing, the coverslips were incubated with the appropriate secondary antibody conjugated to AlexaFluor 488 or AlexaFluor 568 (1:200 dilution in PBS++ containing 0.1% FBS) in the dark for 1 hour at room temperature. After washing six times for 10 minutes with PBS++, the coverslips were rinsed in ultrapure water mounted to slides using antifade reagent containing DAPI (ProLong Gold; Invitrogen). Cells were then viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (Fluoview FV1000; Olympus America Inc., Melville, NY). 
Statistical Analysis
Statistical comparisons were made using the Student’s t-test for unmatched pairs or one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustments (GraphPad Prism, version 4.03 for Windows; GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). Nonlinear regression analysis with the sigmoidal dose-response equation for variable slopes was used to determine the required concentration to reach 50% inhibition (IC50). 
Results
TGFBI/TGFBIp Expression by HSFs
TGFBI gene expression by HSFs was confirmed by RT-PCR using human primers specific to TGFBI together with the housekeeping gene PPIA, which served as the positive control. After electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel, single bands at 373 bp and 300 bp could be detected for TGFBI and PPIA, respectively (Fig. 1A) . No bands were observed when reverse transcriptase was omitted from the PCR reactions (data not shown), indicating that PCR amplicons were not the result of DNA contamination. TGFBIp expression in scleral fibroblast cell lysates and in culture supernatants was evaluated by Western blot analysis. A 68-kDa band was observed in the conditioned media (Fig. 1B ; 1× media, top). A faint 68-kDa band (Fig. 1B ; 10× cell lysates, top) could be identified on 10× concentrated cell lysates, and no bands were detected in culture media in the absence of HSFs (Fig. 1B ; top; DMEM + 0.05% FBS). All bands were abolished when rTGFBIp was preincubated with an equimolar amount (1 μM) of the primary anti-TGFBIp antibody, thereby confirming the specificity of the antibody used (Fig. 1B , middle). Comparison of TGFBIp in scleral fibroblast culture supernatants (1× conditioned media) with a standard curve prepared from rTGFBIp (0.5–5.0 μg) indicated that HSFs secreted abundant levels of TGFBIp (∼4 μg/mL per 48 hours; ∼833 ng/h; Fig. 1C ). 
TGFBIp Modulates HSF Adhesion to Collagen
To assess the effects of TGFBIp on cell adhesion to collagen type I, primary HSFs were plated on collagen-coated, 96-well plates in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp, and anti-TGFBIp antibody (Fig. 2) . rTGFBIp significantly inhibited HSF attachment at concentrations of 25 μg/mL (−32% ± 12.6%; P < 0.05) and 50 μg/mL (−47% ± 2.1%; P < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner compared with BSA alone (Fig. 2A) . HSFs treated with antibody-neutralized rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL rTGFBIp + 50 μg/mL anti-TGFBIp) showed a significant increase in attachment to collagen compared with cells treated with rTGFBIp alone (+34% ± 5.0%; P < 0.01) and no significant difference compared with BSA (+9% ± 7.4%; P = 0.29). HSF attachment to collagen in the presence of anti-TGFBIp alone (50 μg/mL) was similar to cell attachment to BSA-treated, collagen-coated wells (+7% ± 2.1%; P = 0.20). 
The effect of TGFBIp on cell adhesion was also assessed using HFFs (P = 0.50; Fig. 2C ); however, treatment with rTGFBIp together with equimolar amounts of anti-TGFBIp showed a significant decrease in attachment compared with BSA (−28% ± 3.8%; P < 0.01). Similarly, rTGFBIp did not appear to affect HCF attachment to collagen type I compared with BSA (+37% ± 23.7%; P = 0.24; Fig. 2D ); in contrast to HFFs, treatment of HCFs with antibody-neutralized rTGFBIp did not appear to affect attachment compared with BSA (−22% ± 22.7%; P = 0.51). These results demonstrate that TGFBIp inhibits HSF adhesion to collagen type I but does not affect the adhesion of HFF or HCF to collagen. Previous studies have demonstrated that when corneal keratocytes are grown in the presence of serum, they take on a fibroblast phenotype, actively proliferate, and do not express the keratocyte-specific protein keratocan. 50 54 55 56 Based on our growth conditions and the phenotype of the cells (Fig. 2D , inset), the corneal cells used in these cell attachment studies most closely resemble corneal fibroblasts rather than corneal keratocytes or myofibroblasts. 
TGFBIp Binds to the Surfaces of HSFs
Biotinylation of rTGFBIp (100 ng) did not alter the expected 68-kDa band compared with rTGFBIp (100 ng) when probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Fig. 3A) . To determine whether TGFBIp directly binds to the surfaces of HSFs, HSFs were incubated with biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL), and specific binding was determined by visualizing biotinylated rTGFBIp with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase with Western blot analysis (Fig. 3B) . Biotinylated rTGFBIp was observed as a single band migrating at 68 kDa (arrowhead). In addition, a biotinylated higher molecular weight band of 136 to 140 kDa was detected on blots, most likely because of nonspecific binding of streptavidin to a protein(s) in the cell lysates. Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs was saturable at concentrations ≥0.37 nM (25 μg/mL; Bmax), and 50% maximal binding was achieved at 0.15 nM (10 μg/mL). 
To investigate the specificity of TGFBIp displacement to the HSF cell surface, competitive binding assays were performed by assessing biotinylated 0.15 nM rTGFBIp (10 μg/mL) binding to HSFs in the presence of increasing amounts of nonbiotinylated competitor rTGFBIp (0–0.74 nM [50 μg/mL]; Fig. 4A ). The concentration of biotinylated rTGFBIp used in competitive displacement assays was determined based on the estimated K m for rTGFBIp binding (0.185 nM). Analysis of band intensities after the competitive displacement assays indicated that the concentration of rTGFBIp required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of binding to HSFs in vitro was 0.03 nM (Fig. 4B) . Ideally, half the data points on the IC50 curve are above the IC50 value and half are below the IC50 value; unfortunately, however, this did not occur in our experiments. Therefore, additional points (inhibitor concentrations) should be included for a more accurate IC50 determination. However, based on the criterion that the maximum inhibition be greater than 50%, we elected to include these results as shown. 
TGFBIp Binds to Specific Integrins on HSFs
Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies specific for αvβ3and αvβ5 integrins. Compared with the nonimmune IgG isotype control (Fig. 5A) , specific labeling for αvβ3 (Fig. 5B)and αvβ5 (Fig. 5C)integrins were detected on the surfaces of HSFs (P < 0.05), with the anti-αvβ5 antibody generating a stronger signal than the anti-αvβ3 antibody (Fig. 5D) . Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs in the presence of anti-αvβ3 antibody (Fig. 6A)and anti-αvβ5 (Fig. 6B)antibody was significantly inhibited at concentrations of 1 to 10 μg/mL (60%–84% and 42%–56%, respectively). The anti-αvβ5 antibody was less effective at inhibiting the binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp but still demonstrated a significant decrease in binding at concentrations ≥1 μg/mL (P < 0.05). After the binding assays, anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 integrin antibodies were confirmed, with the use of Western blot analysis, to bind to the surfaces of HSFs by detection of mouse IgG with anti-mouse IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (data not shown). 
Expression of TGFBIp and Integrins in HSFs
The distribution of TGFBIp, αvβ3, and αvβ5 was assessed on the surfaces of cultured HSFs with the use of immunocytochemistry (Fig. 7) . TGFBIp was predominantly expressed on the cell surface, between adjacent cells, with minimal intracellular expression and integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 appeared to colocalize with TGFBIp on the cell surface (merged images). Acellular staining (Fig. 7)most likely represents areas in which cells had been artifactually detached during the procedure. Negative control sections were processed in parallel by incubation with secondary antibody only, or nonimmune mouse IgG, and showed no significant fluorescence signal. 
Discussion
TGFBIp is primarily expressed in collagen-rich tissues in association with various extracellular matrix components and the cell surface, suggesting an organizational and structural role. TGFBIp is approximately 77 kDa in size and contains an NH2-terminal signal peptide sequence (residues 1–23) that is proteolytically processed during export to the ECM, rendering the protein a 68-kDa isoform. 46 Additionally, this protein contains 11 cysteine residues mainly clustered in the NH2-terminal region (EMI domain), four highly conserved fasciclin-like (FAS) domains, and a COOH-terminal Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. 45 46 57 58 Because of the structural components of the protein, the presence of the FAS and RGD domains indicates that TGFBIp may play a functional role in cell adhesion. 59 60 61 62 In marmoset and human sclera, TGFBIp expression has only recently been described. 44 To elucidate the role of TGFBIp within the scleral extracellular matrix, studies in our laboratory have focused on the cell–matrix interactions using an in vitro system. 
Results in the present study demonstrate that HSFs express TGFBI and that its protein product, TGFBIp, is secreted into the culture medium in abundant quantities by HSFs, in vitro (∼833 ng/h). Relatively little TGFBIp remained attached to the cell surface or was contained intracellularly, as demonstrated by Western blot analyses of the 10× cell lysate (Fig. 1B) . Secreted TGFBIp was detected as a single 68-kDa band (Fig. 1B) , but a higher molecular weight band (∼120 kDa) was present in cell lysates containing biotinylated rTGFBIp when probed with streptavidin-AP (Figs. 3 4 6) . Because this band was not present when blots were probed with anti-TGFBIp, we suspect this band represents nonspecific binding of streptavidin to a protein in the cell lysates. 63 64  
We previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of TGFBIp on the attachment of HSFs in a solid-phase cell adhesion assay. 44 The present study demonstrates that TGFBIp mediates decreased HSF attachment to collagen type I in a fluid-phase assay. Previous studies have shown TGFBIp supports cell adhesion in many cell types, including corneal fibroblasts, 65 66 67 foreskin fibroblasts, 62 bladder fibroblasts, 68 U87 astrocytoma cells, 69 skeletal muscle cells, 70 proximal tubular epithelial cells, 71 osteoblasts, 53 keratinocytes, 72 SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells, 73 and peritoneal mesothelial cells. 74 Conversely, it has been reported to inhibit cell adhesion in human neuroblastoma cells, 75 A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, HeLa cells, and WI-38 cells. 46 In the present study, we determined that rTGFBIp inhibited the attachment of HSFs to collagen (−32%; P < 0.01), and this effect was restored after neutralizing rTGFBIp with equimolar amounts of anti-TGFBIp compared with BSA (+9%; P = 0.29; Fig. 2B ). Additionally, the short incubation period (45 minutes) allotted for cell attachment suggested that the anti-adhesive effect of rTGFBIp on HSFs was not a result of decreased cell proliferation. In agreement with previous reports, we observed that rTGFBIp did not inhibit attachment to collagen type I using HFFs (−4%; P = 0.50; Fig. 2C ) or HCFs (+37%; P = 0.24; Fig. 2D ), compared with BSA. However, a significant decrease in attachment to collagen type I was observed in HFFs treated with antibody-neutralized rTGFBIp compared with cells treated with BSA alone (−28%; P < 0.01). Because the attachment of HFFs to collagen type I was not affected by treatment with anti-TGFBIp alone, we speculate that the TGFBIp antibody/antigen complexes generated in vitro must have been anti-adhesive to HFFs in our attachment assays. Nevertheless, the finding that TGFBIp inhibits the attachment of HSFs, but not HFFs or HCFs, to collagen type I suggests multiple functional roles of TGFBIp among different cell and tissue types. It also suggests that the anti-adhesive effect of TGFBIp may be fairly specific for HSFs. In contrast to TFGBIp, FN enhanced the attachment of HSFs to collagen type I. We speculate that FN may attach to HSFs through the αvβ5 integrin receptor because FN has been demonstrated to bind to a variety of cell types by this receptor, 76 77 78 and we have demonstrated this integrin on the HSF cell surface. Give that rTGFBIp was shown to bind to HSFs by both αvβ3 and αvβ5, it is likely that rTGFBIp may block the adhesion of HSFs to FN as well; however, these experiments were not conducted in the present study. 
Several studies have reported that TGFBIp can bind to the surfaces of cells in connective tissue-rich matrices to modulate their adhesive properties through cell-specific integrins. 47 53 62 68 69 73 79 80 In the present study, binding assays using biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) confirmed that TGFBIp binds directly to the surfaces of HSFs, and binding was saturable at concentrations ≥0.37 nM with an IC50 of 0.03 nM. Interestingly, this relatively high-affinity binding of TGFBIp to the HSF cell surface described here was similar to that described for the affinity of TGF-β1 latency-associated peptide binding to αvβ6 integrin receptors (18 pM). 81 Integrins implicated in binding TGFBIp to the cell surface include, α1β1, 82 α3β1, 72 73 83 84 αVβ3, 53 74 αVβ5, 53 85 α7β1, 70 and α6β4. 69 The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence present on the C-terminal region of TGFBIp is thought to act as a universal ligand recognition site for integrins; however, the attachment and spreading of cells to TGFBIp does not solely require the RGD sequence but can occur through fasciclin-like domains. 82 In the present study, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies to the integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 were used to identify the expression of αvβ3 and αvβ5 on the HSF cell surface. Based on the mean fluorescence intensities, the relative expression level of αvβ5 appeared more elevated than that of αvβ3. Therefore, αvβ5 may function predominantly in mediating the binding of TGFBIp to HSFs. In addition to our findings, two previous reports in tree shrew, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated mRNA expression of the integrin subunits, α1, α3, and β1 in scleral fibroblasts. 86 87 Taken together, these results suggest that scleral fibroblasts express a variety of integrin subunits, a subset of which are translated and expressed as integrin receptors on the cell surface. 
To identify whether αvβ3 or αvβ5 integrins play a role in TGFBIp binding to the surfaces of HSFs, additional binding assays were conducted after preincubation with specific antibodies to the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins (0–10 μg/mL). Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of anti-αvβ3 or anti-αvβ5. This disruption of interactions between TGFBIp and HSFs by function-blocking antibodies specific for αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins suggests that αvβ3 and αvβ5 mediate some of the binding of TGFBIp to the HSF cell surface and, therefore, have the potential to regulate attachment. 
The mechanism by which TGFBIp modulates cell attachment is not well understood. The results of this study suggest that αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins are functional receptors for TGFBIp on the scleral cell membrane. The expression and activity of integrin downstream signaling molecules FAK and paxillin show a positive correlation with TGFBIp expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting that TGFBIp may alter cell attachment through an integrin-mediated signaling cascade that may lead to cytoskeleton reorganization. 73 Alternatively, the binding of TGFBIp to the HSF cell surface may sterically inhibit cell attachment to collagen type I, as has been demonstrated for hexabrachion (tenascin) 88 and thrombospondin. 89 90 91 In support of integrin-mediated signaling, FN was shown in the present study to enhance the attachment of HSFs to collagen type I. Because FN is well known to mediate its proadhesive property through the αvβ3 integrin receptor(s), it is possible that interaction differences between TGFBIp, FN, and the αvβ3 integrin receptor result in distinct downstream signaling pathways that lead to increased adhesion in one condition (FN) and decreased adhesion in another (TGFBIp). Moreover, differences in integrin subunit expression between different cell types may initiate divergent signaling cascades that result in TGFBIp becoming proadhesive for some cell types and anti-adhesive for others. 
The highly regulated viscoelastic nature of the sclera has been speculated to occur as a result of slippage (creep) of the lamellae across each other at the cell-lamellae interface 33 and is highly correlated with the rate of ocular elongation during myopia development and during decelerated ocular growth during recovery or compensation for plus lenses. 33 34 Therefore, we speculate that changes in scleral ECM remodeling and cell–matrix interactions at the lamellae interface may modulate viscoelasticity in a variety of ocular growth states. The results presented in this article suggest that TGFBIp is one molecule that may regulate the attachment of HSFs to collagen type I at the fibroblast-lamellae interface, thereby regulating the amount of lamellar slippage and scleral viscoelasticity and the rate of scleral elongation. Interestingly, significant increases in TGFBI mRNA transcription levels were recently observed to occur in the scleras of tree shrew eyes undergoing minus-lens compensation. 92 These results, together with the results of the present study, suggest that changes in scleral levels of TGFBIp may act to regulate ocular elongation through the modulation of cell–matrix interactions. 
The molecular mechanisms that regulate scleral ECM remodeling, scleral distensibility, and axial length are poorly understood. Results of the present study suggest that TGFBIp may limit cell–matrix interactions between HSFs and collagen type I through integrin receptors. Additional functional in vivo studies are required to elucidate the roles of TGFBIp, αvβ3, and αvβ5 in the sclera and to determine how these proteins may be involved in scleral ECM remodeling during normal ocular growth and myopia development. 
 
Figure 1.
 
TGFBI/TGFBIp expression in 48-hour serum-starved HSFs. (A) RT-PCR amplification of TGFBI (373 bp) and PPIA (300 bp) from HSFs. (B) Western blot of HSF cell lysates (10×) and media (1×) probed with anti-TGFBIp (top). Human recombinant TGFBIp (rTGFBIp, 40 ng) and DMEM containing 0.05% FBS served as the positive and negative control, respectively. Preincubation of anti-TGFBIp with an equimolar amount of rTGFBIp (1 μM) for 1 hour at room temperature abolished all immunopositive bands, confirming the specificity of the antibody (rTGFBIp block, middle). Total protein loaded in each lane was visualized by Coomassie blue (bottom). (C) Indicated quantities of rTGFBIp were compared with several dilutions of 48-hour HSF conditioned medium (10 μL/lane).
Figure 1.
 
TGFBI/TGFBIp expression in 48-hour serum-starved HSFs. (A) RT-PCR amplification of TGFBI (373 bp) and PPIA (300 bp) from HSFs. (B) Western blot of HSF cell lysates (10×) and media (1×) probed with anti-TGFBIp (top). Human recombinant TGFBIp (rTGFBIp, 40 ng) and DMEM containing 0.05% FBS served as the positive and negative control, respectively. Preincubation of anti-TGFBIp with an equimolar amount of rTGFBIp (1 μM) for 1 hour at room temperature abolished all immunopositive bands, confirming the specificity of the antibody (rTGFBIp block, middle). Total protein loaded in each lane was visualized by Coomassie blue (bottom). (C) Indicated quantities of rTGFBIp were compared with several dilutions of 48-hour HSF conditioned medium (10 μL/lane).
Figure 2.
 
Inhibitory role of TGFBIp on cell attachment is specific to HSFs. (A) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, or rTGFBIp (1–50 μg/mL). (B) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (C) Attachment of HFFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (D) Attachment of HCFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). Micrograph of HCFs before harvesting for cell attachment assays demonstrating a distinct fibroblast phenotype (inset). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM for three experiments conducted in triplicate. **P < 0.01. NS, not significant using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 2.
 
Inhibitory role of TGFBIp on cell attachment is specific to HSFs. (A) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, or rTGFBIp (1–50 μg/mL). (B) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (C) Attachment of HFFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (D) Attachment of HCFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). Micrograph of HCFs before harvesting for cell attachment assays demonstrating a distinct fibroblast phenotype (inset). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM for three experiments conducted in triplicate. **P < 0.01. NS, not significant using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 3.
 
TGFBIp binds to the surfaces of HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. (A) Western blot of both rTGFBIp (100 ng) and biotinylated rTGFBIp (100 ng). Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, then stripped and reprobed with anti-TGFBIp. (B) Western blot of HSF lysates incubated with increasing concentrations of biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, and histogram of band densities. Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs was saturable at ≥0.37 nM (25 μg/mL; Bmax).
Figure 3.
 
TGFBIp binds to the surfaces of HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. (A) Western blot of both rTGFBIp (100 ng) and biotinylated rTGFBIp (100 ng). Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, then stripped and reprobed with anti-TGFBIp. (B) Western blot of HSF lysates incubated with increasing concentrations of biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, and histogram of band densities. Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs was saturable at ≥0.37 nM (25 μg/mL; Bmax).
Figure 4.
 
Competitive displacement of biotinylated rTGFBIp with nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. (A) Representative Western blot from three independent experiments in duplicate of cell lysates from HSFs incubated with soluble biotinylated rTGFBIp (0.15 nM), washed with PBS, then incubated with increasing amounts of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp competitor (0–0.74 nM) probed with anti-TGFBIp and streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Note the reduced biotinylated rTGFBIp binding in the presence of the competitor. Arrowhead: position of the 68-kDa band. (B) Competitive inhibition curve for specific binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp by increasing concentrations of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. The 50% inhibition concentration (log IC50) was calculated to be −1.54 nM (IC50 = 0.03 nM). Data are expressed as band intensity of biotinylated rTGFBIp relative to α-tubulin, and were fit into an IC50 equation. For the loading control, all blots were stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody.
Figure 4.
 
Competitive displacement of biotinylated rTGFBIp with nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. (A) Representative Western blot from three independent experiments in duplicate of cell lysates from HSFs incubated with soluble biotinylated rTGFBIp (0.15 nM), washed with PBS, then incubated with increasing amounts of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp competitor (0–0.74 nM) probed with anti-TGFBIp and streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Note the reduced biotinylated rTGFBIp binding in the presence of the competitor. Arrowhead: position of the 68-kDa band. (B) Competitive inhibition curve for specific binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp by increasing concentrations of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. The 50% inhibition concentration (log IC50) was calculated to be −1.54 nM (IC50 = 0.03 nM). Data are expressed as band intensity of biotinylated rTGFBIp relative to α-tubulin, and were fit into an IC50 equation. For the loading control, all blots were stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody.
Figure 5.
 
Integrin expression on the surface of HSFs. Flow cytometry on live HSFs incubated with 4 μg/mL IgG isotype control (A) or the monoclonal antibodies anti-αvβ3 (B) and anti-αvβ5 (C). Data are expressed as cell counts (y-axis) plotted as a function of fluorescence intensity (x-axis) and are representative of three independent experiments. (D) Histogram represents the mean intensities of anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 from flow cytometric analysis compared with the IgG isotype control. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM by the Student’s t-test for unmatched pairs for four individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
Figure 5.
 
Integrin expression on the surface of HSFs. Flow cytometry on live HSFs incubated with 4 μg/mL IgG isotype control (A) or the monoclonal antibodies anti-αvβ3 (B) and anti-αvβ5 (C). Data are expressed as cell counts (y-axis) plotted as a function of fluorescence intensity (x-axis) and are representative of three independent experiments. (D) Histogram represents the mean intensities of anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 from flow cytometric analysis compared with the IgG isotype control. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM by the Student’s t-test for unmatched pairs for four individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
Figure 6.
 
TGFBIp binds to HSFs by interacting with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Representative Western blots of cell lysates collected from HSFs preincubated with the function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (0–10 μg/mL) against (A) αvβ3 and (B) αvβ5 for 1 hour at 4°C, before the addition of biotinylated rTGFBIp (10 μg/mL) for 5 hours at 4°C. Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (top), stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody (bottom). Arrowhead: biotinylated rTGFBIp (∼68 kDa). Histograms represent the relative band intensities quantified; each band was normalized to its corresponding α-tubulin. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM for three independent experiments in triplicate. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 6.
 
TGFBIp binds to HSFs by interacting with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Representative Western blots of cell lysates collected from HSFs preincubated with the function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (0–10 μg/mL) against (A) αvβ3 and (B) αvβ5 for 1 hour at 4°C, before the addition of biotinylated rTGFBIp (10 μg/mL) for 5 hours at 4°C. Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (top), stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody (bottom). Arrowhead: biotinylated rTGFBIp (∼68 kDa). Histograms represent the relative band intensities quantified; each band was normalized to its corresponding α-tubulin. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM for three independent experiments in triplicate. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 7.
 
Colocalization of TGFBIp to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in HSFs. Immunofluorescence of TGFBIp (red) on the surfaces of HSFs double labeled with anti-αvβ3 (green, middle), or with anti-αvβ5 (green, bottom). Right: merged images. Yellow: areas of colocalization. Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). No signal was detected in secondary antibody only or in nonimmune mouse IgG controls.
Figure 7.
 
Colocalization of TGFBIp to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in HSFs. Immunofluorescence of TGFBIp (red) on the surfaces of HSFs double labeled with anti-αvβ3 (green, middle), or with anti-αvβ5 (green, bottom). Right: merged images. Yellow: areas of colocalization. Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). No signal was detected in secondary antibody only or in nonimmune mouse IgG controls.
The authors thank Brian de la Cruz and Rachel Folger for their technical assistance, and David M. Sherry and Brian P. Ceresa for their helpful discussions and suggestions pertaining to this manuscript. 
MarshallGE, KonstasAG, LeeWR. Collagens in the aged human macular sclera. Curr Eye Res. 1993;12:143–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WhiteJ, WerkmeisterJA, RamshawJA, BirkDE. Organization of fibrillar collagen in the human and bovine cornea: collagen types V and III. Connect Tissue Res. 1997;36:165–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
GentleA, LiuY, MartinJE, ContiGL, McBrienNA. Collagen gene expression and the altered accumulation of scleral collagen during the development of high myopia. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16587–16594. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
TamuraY, KonomiH, SawadaH, TakashimaS, NakajimaA. Tissue distribution of type VIII collagen in human adult and fetal eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32:2636–2644. [PubMed]
WesselH, AndersonS, FiteD, HalvasE, HempelJ, SundarRajN. Type XII collagen contributes to diversities in human corneal and limbal extracellular matrices. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997;38:2408–2422. [PubMed]
Sandberg-LallM, HäggPO, WahlströmI, PihlajaniemiT. Type XIII collagen is widely expressed in the adult and developing human eye and accentuated in the ciliary muscle, the optic nerve and the neural retina. Exp Eye Res. 2000;70:401–410. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
RadaJA, JohnsonJM. Sclera.KrachmerJ MannisM HollandE eds. Cornea. 2005;27–36.Mosby St Louis.
RadaJA, AchenVR, PerryCA, FoxPW. Proteoglycans in the human sclera: evidence for the presence of aggrecan. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997;38:1740–1751. [PubMed]
CorpuzLM, FunderburghJL, FunderburghML, BottomleyGS, PrakashS, ConradGW. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of keratocan: bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan 37A. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:9759–9763. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
YingS, ShiraishiA, KaoCW, et al. Characterization and expression of the mouse lumican gene. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:30306–30313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
RadaJA, AchenVR, PenugondaS, SchmidtRW, MountBA. Proteoglycan composition in the human sclera during growth and aging. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000a;41:1639–1648.
JohnsonJM, YoungTL, RadaJA. Small leucine rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) in the human sclera: identification of abundant levels of PRELP. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1057–1066. [PubMed]
MarshallGE. Human scleral elastic system: an immunoelectron microscopic study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995;79:57–64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
FrostMR, NortonTT. Differential protein expression in tree shrew sclera during development of lens-induced myopia and recovery. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1580–1588. [PubMed]
RadaJA, SheltonS, NortonTT. The sclera and myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:185–200. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
CurtinBJ, TengCC. Scleral changes in pathological myopia. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1957;62:777–790.
CurtinBJ, IwamotoT, RenaldoDP. Normal and staphylomatous sclera of high myopia: an electron microscopic study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97:912–915. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
AvetisovES, SavitskayaNF, VinetskayaMI, IomdinaEN. A study of biochemical and biomechanical qualities of normal and myopic eye sclera in humans of different age groups. Metab Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol. 1983;7:183–188. [PubMed]
TroiloD, WallmanJ. The regulation of eye growth and refractive state: an experimental study of emmetropization. Vision Res. 1991;31:1237–1250. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
NortonTT, RadaJA. Reduced extracellular matrix in mammalian sclera with induced myopia. Vision Res. 1995;35:1271–1281. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
SiegwartJT, Jr, NortonTT. Steady state mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera with form-deprivation myopia and during recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1153–1159. [PubMed]
SiegwartJT, Jr, NortonTT. The time course of changes in mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during induced myopia and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:2067–2075. [PubMed]
SiegwartJT, Jr, NortonTT. Selective regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during minus lens compensation and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3484–3492. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
TroiloD, NicklaDL, MertzJR, Summers RadaJA. Change in the synthesis rates of ocular retinoic acid and scleral glycosaminoglycan during experimentally altered eye growth in marmosets. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1768–1777. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
NortonTT. Experimental myopia in tree shrews. CIBA Found Symp. 1990;155:178–194. [PubMed]
McBrienNA, GentleA. The role of visual information in the control of scleral matrix biology in myopia. Curr Eye Res. 2001;23:313–319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McBrienNA, LawlorP, GentleA. Scleral remodeling during the development of and recovery from axial myopia in the tree shrew. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3713–3719. [PubMed]
RadaJA, NicklaDL, TroiloD. Decreased proteoglycan synthesis associated with form deprivation myopia in mature primate eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2050–2058. [PubMed]
JoblingAI, NguyenM, GentleA, McBrienNA. Isoform-specific changes in scleral transforming growth factor-beta expression and the regulation of collagen synthesis during myopia progression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18121–18126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
RadaJA, BrenzaHL. Increased latent gelatinase activity in the sclera of visually deprived chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:1555–1565. [PubMed]
JonesBE, ThompsonEW, HodosW, WaldbilligRJ, ChaderGJ. Scleral matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteinase activity and hydrational capacity are increased in myopia induced by retinal image degradation. Exp Eye Res. 1996;63:369–381. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
GuggenheimJA, McBrienNA. Form-deprivation myopia induces activation of scleral matrix metalloproteinase-2 in tree shrew. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37:1380–1395. [PubMed]
SiegwartJT, Jr, NortonTT. Regulation of the mechanical properties of tree shrew sclera by the visual environment. Vision Res. 1999;39:387–407. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
PhillipsJR, KhalajM, McBrienNA. Induced myopia associated with increased scleral creep in chick and tree shrew eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:2028–2034. [PubMed]
McBrienNA, GentleA. Role of the sclera in the development and pathological complications of myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2003;22:307–338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WallmanJ, GottliebMD, RajaramV, Fugate-WentzekLA. Local retinal regions control local eye growth and myopia. Science. 1987;237:73–77. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
MilesFA, WallmanJ. Local ocular compensation for imposed local refractive error. Vision Res. 1990;30:339–349. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WildsoetC, WallmanJ. Choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Vision Res. 1995;35:1175–1194. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
TroiloD, GottliebMD, WallmanJ. Visual deprivation causes myopia in chicks with optic nerve section. Curr Eye Res. 1987;6:993–999. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WallmanJ, WinawerJ. Homeostasis of eye growth and the question of myopia. Neuron. 2004;43:447–468. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WallmanJ, WildsoetC, XuA, et al. Moving the retina: choroidal modulation of refractive state. Vision Res. 1995;35:37–50. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
MarzaniD, WallmanJ. Growth of the two layers of the chick sclera is modulated reciprocally by visual conditions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997;38:1726–1739. [PubMed]
RadaJA, PalmerL. Choroidal regulation of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis during recovery from induced myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2957–2966. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
SheltonL, TroiloD, LernerMR, GusevY, BrackettDJ, RadaJS. Microarray analysis of choroid/RPE gene expression in marmoset eyes undergoing changes in ocular growth and refraction. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1465–1479. [PubMed]
SkonierJ, NeubauerM, MadisenL, BennettK, PlowmanGD, PurchioAF. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of beta Ig-H3, a novel gene induced in a human adenocarcinoma cell line after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:511–522. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
SkonierJ, BennettK, RothwellV, et al. βig-h3: a transforming growth factor-β-responsive gene encoding a secreted protein that inhibits cell attachment in vitro and suppresses the growth of CHO cells in nude mice. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:571–584. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ThapaN, LeeBH, KimIS. TGFBIp/βig-h3 protein: a versatile matrix molecule induced by TGF-β. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:2183–2194. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
SheltonL, RadaJS. Effects of cyclic mechanical stretch on extracellular matrix synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:314–322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
RadaJA, ThoftRA, HassellJR. Increased aggrecan (cartilage proteoglycan) production in the sclera of myopic chicks. Dev Biol. 1991;147:303–312. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
HassellJR, SchrecengostPK, RadaJA, SundarRajN, SossiG, ThoftRA. Biosynthesis of stromal matrix proteoglycans and basement membrane components by human corneal fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;33:547–557. [PubMed]
MaileLA, ImaiY, ClarkeJB, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I increases αVβ3 affinity by increasing the amount of integrin-associated protein that is associated with non-raft domains of the cellular membrane. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1800–1805. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
NamJO, KimJE, JeongHW, et al. Identification of the αvβ3 integrin-interacting motif of βig-h3 and its anti-angiogenic effect. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25902–25909. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ThapaN, KangKB, KimIS. Beta Ig-H3 mediates osteoblast adhesion and inhibits differentiation. Bone. 2005;36:232–242. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
JesterJV, HuangJ, Barry-LanePA, KaoWW, PetrollWM, CavanaghHD. Transforming growth factor(beta)-mediated corneal myofibroblast differentiation requires actin and fibronectin assembly. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:1959–1967. [PubMed]
BealesMP, FunderburghJL, JesterJV, HassellJR. Proteoglycan synthesis by bovine keratocytes and corneal fibroblasts: maintenance of the keratocyte phenotype in culture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:1658–1663. [PubMed]
RyanDG, TalianaL, SunL, WeiZG, MasurSK, LavkerRM. Involvement of S100A4 in stromal fibroblasts of the regenerating cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4255–4262. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
HashimotoK, NoshiroM, OhnoS, et al. Characterization of a cartilage-derived 66-kDa protein (RGD-CAP/beta Ig-H3) that binds to collagen. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1355:303–314. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
KawamotoT, NoshiroM, ShenM, et al. Structural and phylogenetic analyses of RGD-CAP/beta Ig-H3, a fasciclin-like adhesion protein expressed in chick chondrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1395:288–292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
SaikiI, IidaJ, MurataJ, et al. Inhibition of the metastasis of murine malignant melanoma by synthetic polymeric peptides containing core sequences of cell-adhesive molecules. Cancer Res. 1989;49:3815–3822. [PubMed]
ElkinsT, HortschM, BieberAJ, SnowPM, GoodmanCS. Drosophila fasciclin I is a novel homophilic adhesion molecule that along with fasciclin III can mediate cell sorting. J Cell Biol. 1990;110:1825–1832. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ElkinsT, ZinnK, McAllisterL, HoffmannFM, GoodmanCS. Genetic analysis of a Drosophila neural cell adhesion molecule: interaction of fasciclin I and Abelson tyrosine kinase mutations. Cell. 1990;60:565–575. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
LeBaronRG, BezverkovKI, ZimberMP, PavelecR, SkonierJ, PurchioAF. Beta IG-H3, a novel secretory protein inducible by transforming growth factor-beta, is present in normal skin and promotes the adhesion and spreading of dermal fibroblasts in vitro. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;104:844–849. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
AlonR, BayerEA, WilcheckM. Cell-adhesive properties of streptavidin are mediated by the exposure of an RGD-like RYD site. Eur J Cell Biol. 1992;58:271–279. [PubMed]
AlonR, BayerEA, WilchekM. Cell adhesion to streptavidin via RGD-dependent integrins. Eur J Cell Biol. 1993;60:1–11. [PubMed]
EscribanoJ, HernandoN, GhoshS, CrabbJ, Coca-PradosM. cDNA from human ocular ciliary epithelium homologous to βig-h3 is preferentially expressed as an extracellular protein in the corneal epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 1994;160:511–521. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
HiranoK, KlintworthGK, ZhanQ, BennettK, CintronC. βig-h3 is synthesized by corneal epithelium and perhaps endothelium in Fuchs’ dystrophic corneas. Curr Eye Res. 1996;15:965–972. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
FergusonJW, MikeshMF, WheelerEF, et al. Developmental expression patterns of Beta-ig (betaIG-H3) and its function as a cell adhesion protein. Mech Dev. 2003a;120:851–864. [CrossRef]
BillingsPC, WhitbeckJC, AdamsCS, et al. The transforming growth factor-β-inducible matrix protein βig-h3 interacts with fibronectin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28003–28009. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
KimMO, YunSJ, KimIS, SohnS, LeeEH. Transforming growth factor-beta-inducible gene-h3 (beta(ig)-h3) promotes cell adhesion of human astrocytoma cells in vitro: implication of alpha6beta4 integrin. Neurosci Lett. 2003;336:93–96. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
FergusonJW, ThomaBS, MikeshMF, et al. The extracellular matrix protein betaIG-H3 is expressed at myotendinous junctions and supports muscle cell adhesion. Cell Tissue Res. 2003b;313:93–105. [CrossRef]
LeeSH, BaeJS, ParkSH, et al. Expression of TGF-β-induced matrix protein βig-h3 is up-regulated in the diabetic rat kidney and human proximal tubular epithelial cells treated with high glucose. Kidney Int. 2003;64:1012–1021. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
OhJE, KookJK, MinBM. Βig-h3 induces keratinocyte differentiation via modulation of involucrin and transglutaminase expression through the integrin α3β1 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21629–21637. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
TangJ, WuYM, ZhaoP, JiangJL, ChenZN. βig-h3 interacts with α3β1 integrin to promote adhesion and migration of human hepatoma Cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:35–39. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ParkSH, ChoiSY, KimMH, et al. The TGF-β-induced gene product, βig-h3: its biological implications in peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:126–135. [PubMed]
BeckerJ, ErdlenbruchB, NoskovaI, et al. Keratoepithelin suppresses the progression of experimental human neuroblastomas. Cancer Res. 2006;66:5314–5321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
LeeBH, BaeJS, ParkRW, KimJE, ParkJY, KimIS. βig-h3 triggers signaling pathways mediating adhesion and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells through αvβ5 integrin. Exp Mol Med. 2006;38:153–161. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
MidwoodKS, MaoY, HsiaHC, ValenickLV, SchwarzbauerJE. Modulation of cell-fibronectin matrix interactions during tissue repair. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc. 2006;11:73–78. [CrossRef]
SaidN, NajwerI, MotamedK. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion and growth factor-dependent survival signaling in ovarian cancer. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1054–1063. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
OhnoS, DoiT, TsutsumiS, et al. RGD-CAP (βig-h3) is expressed in precartilage condensation and in prehypertrophic chondrocytes during cartilage development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1572:114–122. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
ParkSW, BaeJS, KimKS, et al. Beta ig-h3 promotes renal proximal tubular epithelial cell adhesion, migration and proliferation through the interaction with alpha3beta1 integrin. Exp Mol Med. 2004;36:211–219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
WeinrebPH, SimonKJ, RayhornP, et al. Function-blocking integrin alphavbeta6 monoclonal antibodies: distinct ligand-mimetic and nonligand-mimetic classes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17875–17887. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
OhnoS, NoshiroM, MakihiraS, et al. RGD-CAP (βig-h3) enhances the spreading of chondrocytes and fibroblasts via integrin α1β1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1451:196–205. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
KimJE, KimSJ, LeeBH, ParkRW, KimKS, KimIS. Identification of motifs for cell adhesion within the repeated domains of transforming growth factor-beta-induced gene, βig-h3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30907–30915. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
BaeJS, LeeSH, KimJE, et al. βig-h3 supports keratinocyte adhesion, migration, and proliferation through α3β1 integrin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:940–948. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
KimJE, JeongHW, NamJO, et al. Identification of motifs in the fasciclin domains of the transforming growth factor-beta-induced matrix protein βig-h3 that interact with the αvβ5 integrin. J Biol Chem. 2002a;277:46159–46165. [CrossRef]
McBrienNA, MetlapallyR, JoblingAI, GentleA. Expression of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the mammalian sclera and their regulation during the development of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4674–4682. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
MetlapallyR, JoblingAI, GentleA, McBrienNA. Characterization of the integrin receptor subunit profile in the mammalian sclera. Mol Vis. 2006;12:725–734. [PubMed]
LightnerVA, EricksonHP. Binding of hexabrachion (tenascin) to the extracellular matrix and substratum and its effect on cell adhesion. J Cell Sci. 1990;9:263–277.
Murphy-UllrichJE, MosherDF. Interactions of thrombospondin with cells in culture: rapid degradation of both soluble and matrix thrombospondin. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1987;13:343–351. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
LahavJ. Thrombospondin inhibits adhesion of endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 1988;177:199–204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Murphy-UllrichJE, HöökM. Thrombospondin modulates focal adhesions in endothelial cells. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:1309–1319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McBrienNA, YoungTL, PangCP, et al. Myopia: recent advances in molecular studies; prevalence, progression and risk factors; emmetropization; therapies; optical links; peripheral refraction; sclera and ocular growth; signalling cascades; and animal models. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:45–66. [CrossRef]
Figure 1.
 
TGFBI/TGFBIp expression in 48-hour serum-starved HSFs. (A) RT-PCR amplification of TGFBI (373 bp) and PPIA (300 bp) from HSFs. (B) Western blot of HSF cell lysates (10×) and media (1×) probed with anti-TGFBIp (top). Human recombinant TGFBIp (rTGFBIp, 40 ng) and DMEM containing 0.05% FBS served as the positive and negative control, respectively. Preincubation of anti-TGFBIp with an equimolar amount of rTGFBIp (1 μM) for 1 hour at room temperature abolished all immunopositive bands, confirming the specificity of the antibody (rTGFBIp block, middle). Total protein loaded in each lane was visualized by Coomassie blue (bottom). (C) Indicated quantities of rTGFBIp were compared with several dilutions of 48-hour HSF conditioned medium (10 μL/lane).
Figure 1.
 
TGFBI/TGFBIp expression in 48-hour serum-starved HSFs. (A) RT-PCR amplification of TGFBI (373 bp) and PPIA (300 bp) from HSFs. (B) Western blot of HSF cell lysates (10×) and media (1×) probed with anti-TGFBIp (top). Human recombinant TGFBIp (rTGFBIp, 40 ng) and DMEM containing 0.05% FBS served as the positive and negative control, respectively. Preincubation of anti-TGFBIp with an equimolar amount of rTGFBIp (1 μM) for 1 hour at room temperature abolished all immunopositive bands, confirming the specificity of the antibody (rTGFBIp block, middle). Total protein loaded in each lane was visualized by Coomassie blue (bottom). (C) Indicated quantities of rTGFBIp were compared with several dilutions of 48-hour HSF conditioned medium (10 μL/lane).
Figure 2.
 
Inhibitory role of TGFBIp on cell attachment is specific to HSFs. (A) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, or rTGFBIp (1–50 μg/mL). (B) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (C) Attachment of HFFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (D) Attachment of HCFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). Micrograph of HCFs before harvesting for cell attachment assays demonstrating a distinct fibroblast phenotype (inset). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM for three experiments conducted in triplicate. **P < 0.01. NS, not significant using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 2.
 
Inhibitory role of TGFBIp on cell attachment is specific to HSFs. (A) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, or rTGFBIp (1–50 μg/mL). (B) HSF attachment to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (C) Attachment of HFFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). (D) Attachment of HCFs to collagen type I in the presence of BSA, FN, rTGFBIp (25 μg/mL) with or without anti-TGFBIp (50 μg/mL). Micrograph of HCFs before harvesting for cell attachment assays demonstrating a distinct fibroblast phenotype (inset). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM for three experiments conducted in triplicate. **P < 0.01. NS, not significant using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 3.
 
TGFBIp binds to the surfaces of HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. (A) Western blot of both rTGFBIp (100 ng) and biotinylated rTGFBIp (100 ng). Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, then stripped and reprobed with anti-TGFBIp. (B) Western blot of HSF lysates incubated with increasing concentrations of biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, and histogram of band densities. Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs was saturable at ≥0.37 nM (25 μg/mL; Bmax).
Figure 3.
 
TGFBIp binds to the surfaces of HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. (A) Western blot of both rTGFBIp (100 ng) and biotinylated rTGFBIp (100 ng). Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, then stripped and reprobed with anti-TGFBIp. (B) Western blot of HSF lysates incubated with increasing concentrations of biotinylated rTGFBIp (0–50 μg/mL) probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, and histogram of band densities. Binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp to HSFs was saturable at ≥0.37 nM (25 μg/mL; Bmax).
Figure 4.
 
Competitive displacement of biotinylated rTGFBIp with nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. (A) Representative Western blot from three independent experiments in duplicate of cell lysates from HSFs incubated with soluble biotinylated rTGFBIp (0.15 nM), washed with PBS, then incubated with increasing amounts of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp competitor (0–0.74 nM) probed with anti-TGFBIp and streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Note the reduced biotinylated rTGFBIp binding in the presence of the competitor. Arrowhead: position of the 68-kDa band. (B) Competitive inhibition curve for specific binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp by increasing concentrations of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. The 50% inhibition concentration (log IC50) was calculated to be −1.54 nM (IC50 = 0.03 nM). Data are expressed as band intensity of biotinylated rTGFBIp relative to α-tubulin, and were fit into an IC50 equation. For the loading control, all blots were stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody.
Figure 4.
 
Competitive displacement of biotinylated rTGFBIp with nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. (A) Representative Western blot from three independent experiments in duplicate of cell lysates from HSFs incubated with soluble biotinylated rTGFBIp (0.15 nM), washed with PBS, then incubated with increasing amounts of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp competitor (0–0.74 nM) probed with anti-TGFBIp and streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Note the reduced biotinylated rTGFBIp binding in the presence of the competitor. Arrowhead: position of the 68-kDa band. (B) Competitive inhibition curve for specific binding of biotinylated rTGFBIp by increasing concentrations of nonbiotinylated rTGFBIp. The 50% inhibition concentration (log IC50) was calculated to be −1.54 nM (IC50 = 0.03 nM). Data are expressed as band intensity of biotinylated rTGFBIp relative to α-tubulin, and were fit into an IC50 equation. For the loading control, all blots were stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody.
Figure 5.
 
Integrin expression on the surface of HSFs. Flow cytometry on live HSFs incubated with 4 μg/mL IgG isotype control (A) or the monoclonal antibodies anti-αvβ3 (B) and anti-αvβ5 (C). Data are expressed as cell counts (y-axis) plotted as a function of fluorescence intensity (x-axis) and are representative of three independent experiments. (D) Histogram represents the mean intensities of anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 from flow cytometric analysis compared with the IgG isotype control. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM by the Student’s t-test for unmatched pairs for four individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
Figure 5.
 
Integrin expression on the surface of HSFs. Flow cytometry on live HSFs incubated with 4 μg/mL IgG isotype control (A) or the monoclonal antibodies anti-αvβ3 (B) and anti-αvβ5 (C). Data are expressed as cell counts (y-axis) plotted as a function of fluorescence intensity (x-axis) and are representative of three independent experiments. (D) Histogram represents the mean intensities of anti-αvβ3 and anti-αvβ5 from flow cytometric analysis compared with the IgG isotype control. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM by the Student’s t-test for unmatched pairs for four individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
Figure 6.
 
TGFBIp binds to HSFs by interacting with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Representative Western blots of cell lysates collected from HSFs preincubated with the function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (0–10 μg/mL) against (A) αvβ3 and (B) αvβ5 for 1 hour at 4°C, before the addition of biotinylated rTGFBIp (10 μg/mL) for 5 hours at 4°C. Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (top), stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody (bottom). Arrowhead: biotinylated rTGFBIp (∼68 kDa). Histograms represent the relative band intensities quantified; each band was normalized to its corresponding α-tubulin. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM for three independent experiments in triplicate. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 6.
 
TGFBIp binds to HSFs by interacting with αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Representative Western blots of cell lysates collected from HSFs preincubated with the function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (0–10 μg/mL) against (A) αvβ3 and (B) αvβ5 for 1 hour at 4°C, before the addition of biotinylated rTGFBIp (10 μg/mL) for 5 hours at 4°C. Blots were probed with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (top), stripped and reprobed with α-tubulin antibody (bottom). Arrowhead: biotinylated rTGFBIp (∼68 kDa). Histograms represent the relative band intensities quantified; each band was normalized to its corresponding α-tubulin. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM for three independent experiments in triplicate. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 using ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
Figure 7.
 
Colocalization of TGFBIp to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in HSFs. Immunofluorescence of TGFBIp (red) on the surfaces of HSFs double labeled with anti-αvβ3 (green, middle), or with anti-αvβ5 (green, bottom). Right: merged images. Yellow: areas of colocalization. Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). No signal was detected in secondary antibody only or in nonimmune mouse IgG controls.
Figure 7.
 
Colocalization of TGFBIp to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in HSFs. Immunofluorescence of TGFBIp (red) on the surfaces of HSFs double labeled with anti-αvβ3 (green, middle), or with anti-αvβ5 (green, bottom). Right: merged images. Yellow: areas of colocalization. Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). No signal was detected in secondary antibody only or in nonimmune mouse IgG controls.
×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×