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Renata T. Kashiwabuchi, Fabio R. S. Carvalho, Yasin A. Khan, Denise de Freitas, Annette S. Foronda, Flavio E. Hirai, Mauro S. Campos, Peter J. McDonnell; Assessing Efficacy of Combined Riboflavin and UV-A Light (365 nm) Treatment of Acanthamoeba Trophozoites. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(13):9333-9338. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8382.
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To assess the Acanthamoeba trophozoite viability in vitro and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a hamster model using ultraviolet light A (UV-A) and riboflavin (B2).
A sample of Acanthamoeba sp. cultured was transferred to a 96-well plate and exposed to B2 and the UV-A light (365 nm wavelength) at a power density of 3 mW/cm2, 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. The exposure was done in triplicate. Control groups were prepared in triplicate as well: blank control, UV-A only, riboflavin only, and dead control. Cell viability assessment was done using the trypan blue dye exclusion method. Acanthamoeba keratitis was induced in Chinese hamsters; who were randomly assigned to one of the animal groups: UV-A + B2, propamidine isethionate (Brolene; Sanofi-Aventis, Ellerslie, Auckland, Australia), UV-A + B2 + propamidine isethionate (Brolene), only UV-A, only B2, and blank. Throughout the 14 days after treatment the animals were examined clinically. Histology and clinical scores of all groups were compared.
The in vitro study showed no difference between the treatment group UV-A + B2 and the control groups. In the hamster keratitis model a significant improvement of clinical score was observed for the groups propamidine isethionate (Brolene) and UV-A + B2 + propamidine isethionate (Brolene) (P = 0.0067). Also a significant worsening of clinical score was observed in the other groups: UV-A + B2 group (P = 0.0084), only UV-A (P = 0.0078), B2 only (P = 0.0084), and blank (P = 0.0082). No difference was observed between propamidine isethionate (Brolene) and UV-A + B2 + propamidine isethionate (Brolene).
The adjunctive use of UV-A and B2 therapy did not demonstrate antitrophozoite activity; in vivo UV-A and B2 did not demonstrate efficacy in this model.
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