December 2011
Volume 52, Issue 13
Free
Clinical and Epidemiologic Research  |   December 2011
Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Chinese Subjects
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xiaoyan Ding
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Jiaqing Li
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Jing Zeng
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Wei Ma
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Ran Liu
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Tao Li
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Shanshan Yu
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Shibo Tang
    From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  • Corresponding author: Shibo Tang, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 510060, Guangzhou, China; tangsb@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • Footnotes
    2  These authors contributed equally to the work presented here and should therefore be regarded as equivalent authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science December 2011, Vol.52, 9555-9560. doi:10.1167/iovs.11-8076
  • Views
  • PDF
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to Subscribers Only
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Xiaoyan Ding, Jiaqing Li, Jing Zeng, Wei Ma, Ran Liu, Tao Li, Shanshan Yu, Shibo Tang; Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Chinese Subjects. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(13):9555-9560. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8076.

      Download citation file:


      © 2015 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract

Purpose.: To study posterior choroidal thickness and its profile based on location in a healthy Chinese population and to determine its correlation with age and refractive error.

Methods.: A total of 210 healthy volunteers (420 eyes) with no ophthalmic disease history were recruited. Choroidal scans were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal thickness at 1 mm/3 mm temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior to the fovea were measured.

Results.: The choroid was thickest underneath the fovea (261.93 ± 88.42 μm). At 1 mm and 3 mm to the fovea, the choroid temporally was thicker than nasally. Mean SFCT in subjects younger than 60 years of age were 294.63 ± 75.90 μm, and no correlation between SFCT and age was noted. Mean SFCT in subjects older than 60 years of age was 196.52 ± 74.42 μm, much thinner than that for subjects younger than 60 years of age. A significant negative correlation was found between SFCT and age in subjects older than 60 years of age.

Conclusions.: Age is critical for evaluation of choroidal thickness. However, SFCT has no correlation with age in subjects younger than 60 years of age. In subjects older than 60 years of age, SFCT was significantly negatively correlated with age, and decreased by 5.40 μm for each year of life.

The choroid has numerous functions in the eye, with metabolic support of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the retina being paramount. 1 It contributes a blood supply to the outer retina, including the photoreceptors. Therefore, the choroid is the source of many vision-threatening diseases, such as central serous chorioretinopathy, 2 high myopia-related chorioretinalatrophies, 3 age-related macular degeneration, 4 and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. 5  
Accurate in vivo measurement of choroidal thickness has become an essential step in monitoring disease related to the choroid. However, the choroid is a blind area in conventional eye examinations. It is difficult to image its full thickness because the pigment in the RPE and choroid impedes visualization by ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography. Indocyanine green angiography allows visualization of choroidal vessels, but does not provide cross-sectional information. Conventionally, information regarding choroidal thickness in normal eyes has been based on B-scan ultrasonography or histologic results. However, use of B-scan ultrasonography relies on 10-MHz probes, delivers poor resolution, and has difficulty even differentiating the retina from the choroid. 6,7 Choroidal thickness based on histologic results has been reported to range from 170 to 220 μm, which is much thinner than that reported in recent in vivo measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). 7 9 Since the choroid is a highly vascular structure, the thickness varies with the intraocular pressure and perfusion pressure. 10 Fixation of tissue in histologic procedures causes shrinkage; thus, histologic “on slide” results might theoretically underestimate the true thickness of the choroid. 
Recent advancements in OCT now enable in vivo and noninvasive characterization of more refined details of the choroid using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) or high-penetration 1060-nm OCT. 7,8,11 In the present study, we measured choroidal thickness in 210 healthy Chinese volunteers to determine the normal profile of posterior choroidal thickness and to correlate the choroidal thickness with age and refractive error (RE). 
Subjects and Methods
This study was conducted in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. In all, 210 healthy volunteers with no history of eye disorders (mean age, 49.73 ± 17.89 years; range, 20–85 years) were recruited in this study, including 101 males (mean age, 50.09 ± 19.09 years) and 109 females (mean age, 49.39 ± 16.74 years). Exclusion criteria included high myopia or hyperopia (greater than +6 or −6 diopters of spherical equivalent RE), any retinal or RPE abnormality detectable with OCT, poor image quality because of unstable fixation, or severe cataract. All volunteers with undilated pupils were examined using an EDI system of multimodality diagnostic imaging (wavelength: 870 nm; scan pattern: enhanced depth imaging; Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The EDI image was averaged for 100 scans using the automatic averaging and eye tracking system. The choroid thickness was measured from the outer portion of the hyperreflective line corresponding to the RPE to the inner surface of the sclera. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, and 1 mm and 3 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea (Fig. 1). An autorefractometer (RM-8000B; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) was used to investigate the refractive state of each volunteer. 
Figure 1.
 
OCT scans showing choroidal thickness in normal eye and 9 locations choroidal thickness measured. (A) Fundus image showing horizontal and vertical scan lines go through the fovea. Choroidal thickness of 1 and 3 mm to fovea superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally, marked as S1mm, I1mm, T1mm, N1mm, S3mm, I3mm, T3mm, and N3mm, are measured. (B) OCT image with horizontal scan. Left: temporal; right: nasal. OCT image shows SFCT T1mm, N1mm, T3mm, and N3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 289, 239, 203, and 127 μm, respectively. (C) OCT image with vertical scan. Left: inferior; right: superior. OCT image shows SFCT, S1mm, I1mm, S3mm, and I3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 273, 241, 263, and 220 μm, respectively.
Figure 1.
 
OCT scans showing choroidal thickness in normal eye and 9 locations choroidal thickness measured. (A) Fundus image showing horizontal and vertical scan lines go through the fovea. Choroidal thickness of 1 and 3 mm to fovea superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally, marked as S1mm, I1mm, T1mm, N1mm, S3mm, I3mm, T3mm, and N3mm, are measured. (B) OCT image with horizontal scan. Left: temporal; right: nasal. OCT image shows SFCT T1mm, N1mm, T3mm, and N3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 289, 239, 203, and 127 μm, respectively. (C) OCT image with vertical scan. Left: inferior; right: superior. OCT image shows SFCT, S1mm, I1mm, S3mm, and I3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 273, 241, 263, and 220 μm, respectively.
The data were analyzed by a commercial analytical software program (SPSS 16.0; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). A paired t-test was used to compare choroidal thickness at different locations. A Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were calculated for variation in choroidal thickness relative to age and RE. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 
Results
No statistically significant differences were noted in age between males and females (P = 0.691). The mean overall subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were 261.93 ± 88.42 μm with 95% confidence interval (CI) 253.45–270.41 μm in 210 volunteers, and 270.46 ± 94.77 μm in males, 254.02 ± 81.52 μm in females. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was slightly thicker in males than that in females; however, the P value was a borderline 0.057. Mean SFCT was 262.03 ± 88.90 μm in right eyes and 261.83 ± 88.16 μm in left eyes (P = 0.981) with no statistical difference. The choroidal thickness subfoveal and 1 mm/3 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea are shown in Table 1. At 1 mm to the fovea, the temporal and superior thicknesses were significantly greater than the nasal choroidal thickness (P < 0.01, Table 2). At 3 mm to the fovea, the superior choroid was significantly thicker than temporal, inferior, and nasal choroid (P < 0.001, Table 3). 
Table 1.
 
Mean Choroidal Thickness and 95% CI at Different Locations
Table 1.
 
Mean Choroidal Thickness and 95% CI at Different Locations
Location Mean Choroidal Thickness (μm) SD (μm) 95% CI Difference from Mean Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness P Value*
Lower Bound Upper Bound
SFCT 261.93 88.42 253.45 270.41
S1mm 258.17 83.78 248.35 267.99 3.76 0.576
I1mm 248.15 88.71 237.75 258.54 13.78 0.040
T1mm 258.17 84.69 248.38 267.95 3.76 0.572
N1mm 236.87 89.33 226.55 247.20 25.06 <0.001
S3mm 251.35 77.76 242.23 260.46 10.58 0.086
I3mm 213.05 81.23 203.52 222.57 48.88 <0.001
T3mm 224.21 77.94 215.20 233.22 37.72 <0.001
N3mm 142.92 69.70 134.87 150.98 119.01 <0.001
Table 2.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 1 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
Table 2.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 1 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
SFCT S1mm I1mm T1mm N1mm
SFCT
S1mm 0.576
I1mm 0.040 0.172
T1mm 0.572 0.999 0.169
N1mm <0.001 0.004 0.122 0.003
Table 3.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 3 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
Table 3.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 3 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
SFCT S3mm I3mm T3mm N3mm
SFCT
S3mm 0.086
I3mm <0.001 <0.001
T3mm <0.001 <0.001 0.096
N3mm <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Correlation analysis showed the SFCT is negatively correlated with age (r = −0.474, P < 0.001). The mean RE values of all subjects were −0.87 ± 1.98D. Correlation analysis showed no correlation between SFCT with RE in subjects as a whole (r = 0.026, P = 0.596). 
All volunteers were subgrouped into Groups A to F according to their ages. The number and mean SFCT in each subgroup are indicated in Table 4. No statistically significant differences were found for SFCT among groups A, B, C, and D; however, the SFCT decreased dramatically in Groups E and F, when compared with Groups A to D. Combining the four subgroups A, B, C, and D, which included 140 volunteers younger than 60 years of age, SFCT was 294.63 ± 75.90 μm with 95% CI 285.70–303.56 μm, whereas combining the two subgroups E and F, which included 70 relatively elderly subjects older than 60 years of age, SFCT was 196.52 ± 74.42 μm, with 95% CI 184.08–208.96 μm (t = 12.568, P < 0.001). Representative figures for different ages are shown in Figure 2. No correlation between SFCT and age was observed in the subjects younger than 60 years of age (r = 0.018, P = 0.768), whereas a stronger negative correlation with age in subjects older than 60 years of age (r = −0.533, P < 0.001) (Fig. 3), if compared with subjects as a whole (r = −0.474, P < 0.001). 
Table 4.
 
Comparison of SFCT among Different Subgroups
Table 4.
 
Comparison of SFCT among Different Subgroups
Group (y) Subgroup (y) n Mean Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness (μm) SD (μm) Mean Refractive Error (D) SD (D) t Value P Value
20–59 A 20–29 70 293.51 66.87 −2.86 1.38
B 30–39 68 287.87 72.80 −2.31 2.00
C 40–49 68 299.69 70.40 −0.35 1.14 12.568* <0.001*
D 50–59 74 297.24 91.13 0.10 2.06
60–85 E 60–69 70 230.00 73.59 0.06 1.23
F 70–85 70 163.04 58.89 0.06 1.30
Figure 2.
 
Representative images of choroidal thickness in normal subjects with different ages. (A) A 27-year-old female with −1.5D of myopia; SFCT is 370 μm. (B) A 64-year-old woman with no refractive error; SFCT is 151 μm.
Figure 2.
 
Representative images of choroidal thickness in normal subjects with different ages. (A) A 27-year-old female with −1.5D of myopia; SFCT is 370 μm. (B) A 64-year-old woman with no refractive error; SFCT is 151 μm.
Figure 3.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and age in healthy subjects older than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is negatively correlated with age in subjects older than 60 years of age. r = −0.533, R 2 = 0.284.
Figure 3.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and age in healthy subjects older than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is negatively correlated with age in subjects older than 60 years of age. r = −0.533, R 2 = 0.284.
A significant positive correlation with RE was observed in subjects younger than 60 years of age (r = 0.307, P < 0.001) (Fig. 4). In 70 subjects older than 60 years of age, no correlation between SFCT and RE was found (r = 0.074, P = 0.385). 
Figure 4.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and RE in healthy subjects younger than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is positively correlated with RE in subjects younger than 60 years of age. r = 0.297, R 2 = 0.088.
Figure 4.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and RE in healthy subjects younger than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is positively correlated with RE in subjects younger than 60 years of age. r = 0.297, R 2 = 0.088.
Stepwise analysis was performed to determine which factors—patient age(X 1) or RE(X 2)—were associated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (). In subjects younger than 60 years of age, = 10.871X 2 + 309.215, R 2 = 0.095, R 2 ad = 0.092, P < 0.001. In subjects older than 60 years of age, Ŷ −5.403X 1 + 574.729, R 2 = 0.284, R 2 ad = 0.297, P < 0.001. Thus, age was the negative factor most associated with choroidal thickness in the population older than 60 years of age (F = 54.857; P < 0.001). SFCT decreased by 5.40 μm for each year of life after 60 years of age. However, it was not an associated factor for individuals younger than 60 years of age. Instead, RE was the factor significantly correlated with choroidal thickness (r = 0.149, P < 0.05) only in relatively younger subjects. SFCT decreased by 10.87 μm for each diopter increase of myopia for individuals younger than 60 years of age. 
Discussion
The choroid plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of many diseases affecting the retina. Increasingly more studies now show that choroidal abnormalities such as vascular hyperpermeability, vascular loss, and thinning are found to be critical to the onset and progression of retinal diseases. 8 Recent advancements in SD-OCT now provide two ways for determining choroidal thickness: high-penetration OCT using a long-wavelength light source of 1060 nm 8,12,13 and the EDI technique developed earlier (Spectralis OCT; Heidelberg Engineering). 8,14 16 Compared with conventional OCT using an 850-nm source, 17 long-wavelength OCT with a 1060-nm source has a higher penetration and, consequently, increased sensitivity, for the posterior choroid and the sclera, allowing visualization of the chorioscleral interface in eyes. The EDI system developed on SD-OCT also provides more details of the microarchitecture of the posterior choroid. Both methods facilitate an understanding of the choroidal abnormalities underlying various chorioretinal diseases. Ikuno et al. 18 had compared the agreement among these two modalities and showed that the results of choroidal thickness were well correlated. 
Several studies have recently characterized normal choroidal thickness in normal subjects. Ikuno and colleagues 8 have shown an approximate SFCT of 354 μm in 43 Japanese subjects with a mean age of 39.4 years using a 1060-nm–based light source. At 3 mm to the fovea, the superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal choroid values were 364, 337, 345, and 227 μm, respectively. Margolis and Spaide 7 investigated SFCT in 30 normal subjects (mean age, 50.4 years) by an EDI technique and found that the choroid was thickest underneath the fovea (287 μm), and thickness decreased rapidly nasally, so that it averaged only 145 μm at 3 mm nasal to the fovea. The mean SFCT in the study by Spaide et al. 9 was 318 μm in right eyes and 335 μm in left eyes in 17 volunteers (mean age, 33.4 years) using an EDI system. Our present study showed that choroidal thickness in 210 healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.73 years was 261.93 ± 88.42 μm subfoveally; 224.21 ± 77.94 μm, 3 mm temporally; and 142.92 ± 69.70 μm, 3 mm nasally; these values were very similar to values reported by Margolis and Spaide 7 using an EDI system. The values in our study were somewhat thinner than those reported previously by Spaide and Ikuno. However, the differences may result from differences in the measuring software or the OCT light source, differences in ethnicity (although Margolis and Spaide 7 and Spaide et al. 9 did not specify their ethnic groups), or differences in patient profiles such as age, RE, or axial length. Notably, the other published studies all used a sample size < 50, whereas our study recruited 210 healthy volunteers. 
Ikuno and colleagues 8 investigated the relation of SFCT and RE, and found there was a borderline significant positive correlation between them (P = 0.086; y = 9.3x + 373.4; R 2 = 0.046), which suggested that SFCT decreased by 9.3 μm for each diopter increase of myopia. In our study, no correlation between SFCT with RE was noted when the entire group of subjects was considered (r = 0.026, P = 0.596). The possible reason is that mean age of 43 subjects included in Ikuno's study is 39.4 years old, much younger than ours (49.73 years old). However, a significant positive correlation with RE was found in the subgroup younger than 60 years of age (r = 0.307, P < 0.001), but not correlated with SFCT in individuals older than 60 years of age (r = 0.074, P = 0.385). SFCT decreased by 10.87 μm for each diopter increase of myopia, which is quite similar to that reported by Ikuno and colleagues. 8  
In previous studies, increasing age was shown to be significantly correlated with decreasing choroidal thickness. Regression analysis suggested an approximate decrease in thickness of 15.6 μm every 10 years by Margolis and Spaide 7 and 14 μm by Ikuno and colleagues. 8 Since our present study used a larger sample size (210 volunteers) with wider age ranges (from 20 to 85 years) for accurate analysis, we were able to subgroup volunteers by their ages. Statistical analysis showed that the SFCT in subjects younger than 60 years of age in four subgroups was very similar, as 293.51, 287.87, 299.69, and 297.24 μm in subjects 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, and 50–59 years of age, respectively. In the Combined Group that included 140 volunteers younger than 60 years of age, SFCT was 294.63 ± 75.90 μm, whereas in the Combined Group that included 70 subjects older than 60 years of age, SFCT was 196.52 ± 74.42 μm, or much thinner than that in the younger group. Stepwise regression analysis confirmed that age was not a significant factor of choroidal thickness in the population younger than 60 years of age. Thus, we suggested that age was the factor most associated with SFCT only in people older than 60 years of age, but not in relatively younger people (younger than 60 years of age). 
In our study, we showed a negative correlation between thickness and age in normal subjects older than 60 years of age, which suggested that progressive choroidal thinning occurs over time only in older people. This is a very different finding from that reported in previous studies. The microvascular loss in elderly people may decrease the ability of the choroid to supply proper levels of oxygen and other metabolites to the RPE and outer retina, thus at least partially explaining the mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration. The other factors that affect choroidal thickness remain unknown, so determining them is a high-priority task in future studies. 
Footnotes
 Supported by the Fundamental Research Funds of State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Grants 10151008901000055 and 2011B031700045.
Footnotes
 Disclosure: X. Ding, None; J. Li, None; J. Zeng, None; W. Ma, None; R. Liu, None; T. Li, None; S. Yu, None; S. Tang, None
References
Linsenmeier RA Padnick-Silver L . Metabolic dependence of photoreceptors on the choroid in the normal and detached retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3117–3123. [PubMed]
Gupta B Mohamed MD . Photodynamic therapy for variant central serous chorioretinopathy: efficacy and side effects. Ophthalmologica. 2011;225:207–210. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fitzgerald ME Wildsoet CF Reiner A . Temporal relationship of choroidal blood flow and thickness changes during recovery from form deprivation myopia in chicks. Exp Eye Res. 2002;74:561–570. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Grossniklaus HE Green WR . Choroidal neovascularization. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:496–503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gomi F Tano Y . Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and treatments. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19:208–212. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Coleman DJ Silverman RH Chabi A . High-resolution ultrasonic imaging of the posterior segment. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1344–1351. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Margolis R Spaide RF . A pilot study of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in normal eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:811–815. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ikuno Y Kawaguchi K Nouchi T Yasuno Y . Choroidal thickness in healthy Japanese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2173–2176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Spaide RF Koizumi H Pozzoni MC . Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:496–500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kiel JW van Heuven WA . Ocular perfusion pressure and choroidal blood flow in the rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:579–585. [PubMed]
Maruko I Iida T Sugano Y Ojima A Sekiryu T . Subfoveal choroidal thickness in fellow eyes of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2011;31:1603–1608. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Esmaeelpour M Považay B Hermann B . Mapping choroidal and retinal thickness variation in type 2 diabetes using three-dimensional 1060-nm optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5311–5316. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Esmaeelpour M Považay B Hermann B . Three-dimensional 1060-nm OCT: choroidal thickness maps in normal subjects and improved posterior segment visualization in cataract patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5260–5266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Maruko I Iida T Sugano Y Ojima A Ogasawara M Spaide RF . Subfoveal choroidal thickness after treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1792–1799. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Torres VL Brugnoni N Kaiser PK Singh AD . Optical coherence tomography enhanced depth imaging of choroidal tumors. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:586–593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Spaide RF . Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of retinal pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:644–652. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
de Bruin DM Burnes DL Loewenstein J . In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:4545–4552. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ikuno Y Maruko I Yasuno Y . Reproducibility of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in enhanced depth imaging and high-penetration optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5536–5540. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Figure 1.
 
OCT scans showing choroidal thickness in normal eye and 9 locations choroidal thickness measured. (A) Fundus image showing horizontal and vertical scan lines go through the fovea. Choroidal thickness of 1 and 3 mm to fovea superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally, marked as S1mm, I1mm, T1mm, N1mm, S3mm, I3mm, T3mm, and N3mm, are measured. (B) OCT image with horizontal scan. Left: temporal; right: nasal. OCT image shows SFCT T1mm, N1mm, T3mm, and N3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 289, 239, 203, and 127 μm, respectively. (C) OCT image with vertical scan. Left: inferior; right: superior. OCT image shows SFCT, S1mm, I1mm, S3mm, and I3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 273, 241, 263, and 220 μm, respectively.
Figure 1.
 
OCT scans showing choroidal thickness in normal eye and 9 locations choroidal thickness measured. (A) Fundus image showing horizontal and vertical scan lines go through the fovea. Choroidal thickness of 1 and 3 mm to fovea superiorly, inferiorly, temporally, and nasally, marked as S1mm, I1mm, T1mm, N1mm, S3mm, I3mm, T3mm, and N3mm, are measured. (B) OCT image with horizontal scan. Left: temporal; right: nasal. OCT image shows SFCT T1mm, N1mm, T3mm, and N3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 289, 239, 203, and 127 μm, respectively. (C) OCT image with vertical scan. Left: inferior; right: superior. OCT image shows SFCT, S1mm, I1mm, S3mm, and I3mm with choroidal thickness of 274, 273, 241, 263, and 220 μm, respectively.
Figure 2.
 
Representative images of choroidal thickness in normal subjects with different ages. (A) A 27-year-old female with −1.5D of myopia; SFCT is 370 μm. (B) A 64-year-old woman with no refractive error; SFCT is 151 μm.
Figure 2.
 
Representative images of choroidal thickness in normal subjects with different ages. (A) A 27-year-old female with −1.5D of myopia; SFCT is 370 μm. (B) A 64-year-old woman with no refractive error; SFCT is 151 μm.
Figure 3.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and age in healthy subjects older than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is negatively correlated with age in subjects older than 60 years of age. r = −0.533, R 2 = 0.284.
Figure 3.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and age in healthy subjects older than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is negatively correlated with age in subjects older than 60 years of age. r = −0.533, R 2 = 0.284.
Figure 4.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and RE in healthy subjects younger than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is positively correlated with RE in subjects younger than 60 years of age. r = 0.297, R 2 = 0.088.
Figure 4.
 
Scatterplot of SFCT and RE in healthy subjects younger than 60 years of age. Subfoveal choroidal thickness is positively correlated with RE in subjects younger than 60 years of age. r = 0.297, R 2 = 0.088.
Table 1.
 
Mean Choroidal Thickness and 95% CI at Different Locations
Table 1.
 
Mean Choroidal Thickness and 95% CI at Different Locations
Location Mean Choroidal Thickness (μm) SD (μm) 95% CI Difference from Mean Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness P Value*
Lower Bound Upper Bound
SFCT 261.93 88.42 253.45 270.41
S1mm 258.17 83.78 248.35 267.99 3.76 0.576
I1mm 248.15 88.71 237.75 258.54 13.78 0.040
T1mm 258.17 84.69 248.38 267.95 3.76 0.572
N1mm 236.87 89.33 226.55 247.20 25.06 <0.001
S3mm 251.35 77.76 242.23 260.46 10.58 0.086
I3mm 213.05 81.23 203.52 222.57 48.88 <0.001
T3mm 224.21 77.94 215.20 233.22 37.72 <0.001
N3mm 142.92 69.70 134.87 150.98 119.01 <0.001
Table 2.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 1 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
Table 2.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 1 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
SFCT S1mm I1mm T1mm N1mm
SFCT
S1mm 0.576
I1mm 0.040 0.172
T1mm 0.572 0.999 0.169
N1mm <0.001 0.004 0.122 0.003
Table 3.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 3 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
Table 3.
 
Post Hoc between Choroidal Thickness 3 mm to Fovea and SFCT Using LSD t-Test
SFCT S3mm I3mm T3mm N3mm
SFCT
S3mm 0.086
I3mm <0.001 <0.001
T3mm <0.001 <0.001 0.096
N3mm <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Table 4.
 
Comparison of SFCT among Different Subgroups
Table 4.
 
Comparison of SFCT among Different Subgroups
Group (y) Subgroup (y) n Mean Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness (μm) SD (μm) Mean Refractive Error (D) SD (D) t Value P Value
20–59 A 20–29 70 293.51 66.87 −2.86 1.38
B 30–39 68 287.87 72.80 −2.31 2.00
C 40–49 68 299.69 70.40 −0.35 1.14 12.568* <0.001*
D 50–59 74 297.24 91.13 0.10 2.06
60–85 E 60–69 70 230.00 73.59 0.06 1.23
F 70–85 70 163.04 58.89 0.06 1.30
Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×