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Farrukh A. Shamsi, Ziyan Chen, Jingwen Liang, Kaijun Li, Ali A. Al-Rajhi, Imtiaz A. Chaudhry, Mingtao Li, Kaili Wu; Analysis and Comparison of Proteomic Profiles of Tear Fluid from Human, Cow, Sheep, and Camel Eyes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(12):9156-9165. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.11-8301.
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To investigate the tear proteome profiles of human, cow, sheep, and camel comparatively and to explore the difference of tear protein profiles among different species.
Tears were collected from both eyes of 25 clinically healthy volunteers, 50 cows, 25 sheep, and 50 camels. Pooled tear protein samples were separated by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots of differential expression were excised and subjected to in-gel digestion and identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrum analysis. Because of the incomplete genomic data of cow, sheep, and camel, a combined strategy of de novo sequencing and BLAST (Best Local Alignment Search Tool) homology searching was also used for protein identification. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot analysis.
On comparison with human tears (182 ± 6 spots), 223 ± 8, 217 ± 11, and 241 ± 3 well-resolved protein spots were detected in triphenylmethane dye–stained gels of cow, sheep, and camel tears, respectively. Similar high-abundant proteins (lactoferrin, lysozyme, etc.) were found in all tear fluids. Tear lipocalins have been identified in cow and sheep tears. BLAST searching revealed a 21-kDa protein, identical with human vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 (VMO1) homolog, in camel tears. The Western blot confirmed that VMO1 homolog was present in both camel and sheep tears but not in human and cow tears.
The comparative proteomic analyses of tears from healthy humans, cows, sheep, and camels were first reported. Differential protein expression existed in the tear among species, offering useful information for further study on tear proteins and the related ocular diseases.
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