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Weiyi Pang, Abdullah A. Ahmadzai, Imran I. Patel, Xiaoqiang Qiu, Melody Liles, Andrew J. Quantock, Francis L. Martin; Alterations in the Biomolecular Signatures of Developing Chick Corneas as Determined by Biospectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(3):1162-1168. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9262.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Biospectroscopy tools are increasingly being recognized as novel approaches toward interrogating complex biological structures in a nondestructive fashion. This study was conducted to apply these tools to interrogate alterations in the molecular signatures of developing chick corneas during the onset and development of transparency.
Embryonic chick corneas (n = 46) were obtained at 2-day intervals from embryonic day (E)10 to E18 of incubation and investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. Resultant spectra were analyzed for variance by using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA).
Mean spectra after ATR-FTIR spectroscopy or Raman microspectroscopy derived from corneas at each developmental stage showed some overlap; however, in PCA-LDA scores plots, a clear segregation of spectra was evident, and two-category discrimination indicated that significant molecular alterations occur during tissue morphogenesis. Notable by both techniques was the increasing intensity of DNA signal (1080 cm−1) from E10 onward. Major segregating biomarkers identified by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy between E10 and E18 were in the DNA/RNA (1126 cm−1), glycogen (1045 cm−1), protein (1470 cm−1), and amide II (1512 cm−1 and 1524 cm−1) spectral regions. Raman spectroscopy also identified major distinguishing vibrational modes that included proteins, amino acids (tyrosine, proline phenylalanine, and valine), and secondary structures of proteins (amide I and amide II).
The developing chick cornea undergoes significant changes in its biomolecular composition in the E10 to E18 developmental period, with the major changes occurring in the spectral regions associated with DNA/RNA, proteins, glycogen, and secondary protein structures.
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