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Clairton F. de Souza, Michael Kalloniatis, David L. Christie, Philip J. Polkinghorne, Charles N. J. McGhee, Monica L. Acosta; Creatine Transporter Immunolocalization in Aged Human and Detached Retinas. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(4):1936-1945. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8462.
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To identify the distribution of creatine transporter (CRT) in the aged human retina and how this expression pattern is modified after retinal detachment.
An affinity-purified antibody raised against the CRT was used in the immunohistochemical investigation. The anti-CRT antibody was colocalized with neuronal markers (calbindin, parvalbumin, Islet-1, calretinin, GAD67, Go-alpha), glia markers (glutamine synthetase, glial fibrillary acid protein), and a blood vessel basal membrane marker (laminin). Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the labeling patterns in retinal sections. The level of CRT expression was determined in the retina using a semiquantification method.
Immunohistochemical assessment of CRT expression in the normal aged retina revealed strong labeling in photoreceptor synaptic terminals and in inner and outer segments. Labeling was also observed on subpopulations of amacrine cells and ganglion cells as well as in the outer and inner plexiform layers. CRT labeling was observed in blood vessels, although was absent in glial cells. In retinal detachment, the CRT labeling pattern was maintained, although there was an apparent decrease in labeling in inner retina and an increase in CRT expression in photoreceptors.
CRT is expressed in areas of intense metabolic activity, such as photoreceptors, selected cells in the inner retina, and sites of creatine transport into the retina (inner retinal blood vessels and retinal pigment epithelium). The absence of CRT to Müller cells harmonizes with the concept that glial cells are a biosynthetic source of creatine but not a source of creatine to other retinal neurons. The increased immunolabeling of CRT localized to the outer retina in retinal detachment suggests a regional metabolic remodeling occurring in photoreceptor cells.
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